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Taurine 8 pp 345-369 | Cite as

The Effects of Taurine and Thiotaurine on Oxidative Stress in the Aorta and Heart of Diabetic Rats

  • Elizabeth Mathew
  • Michael A. Barletta
  • Cesar A. Lau-CamEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 775)

Abstract

This study has compared the actions of the sulfur-containing compounds taurine (TAU) and thiotaurine (TTAU) with those of insulin (INS) on the oxidative stress that develops in the aorta and heart as a result of diabetes. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Starting on day 15, and continuing for the next 41 days, the diabetic rats received each day 2 mL of physiological saline or 2.4 mmol/kg/2 mL of TAU (or TTAU) p.o. or 4 U/kg of isophane INS s.c. Normal rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed on day 57 to collect blood, heart and thoracic aorta samples. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a lower body weight gain (by 34%), higher than normal plasma glucose (by ∼4-fold), cholesterol (by 66%) and triglycerides (by 188%) levels, and lower INS levels (by 76%). Also there was a marked increase in catalase activity (≥90%); and clear decreases in nitrite (≥40%), glutathione redox status (≥67%), and glutathione peroxidase (≥66%) and superoxide dismutase (≥51%) activities in both the aorta and heart. With only a few isolated instances (plasma lipids), TTAU was either markedly more effective (plasma glucose, plasma INS, aorta and heart glutathione, aorta redox status, and antioxidant enzymes) or marginally more effective (heart redox status) than TAU in attenuating the alterations brought about by diabetes. These results suggest that replacing the sulfonic acid group of TAU by thiosulfonic acid can lead to a greater potency against diabetes-related biochemical changes in the plasma, heart and aorta. However, except for effects on plasma lipids, these sulfur-containing compounds were less effective than INS in counteracting diabetes-related changes.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Hexosamine Pathway Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lower Body Weight Gain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

STZ

Streptozotocin

TAU

Taurine

TTAU

Thiotaurine

INS

Insulin

GLC

Glucose

CHOL

Cholesterol

TGs

Triglycerides

NO2

Nitrite

MDA

Malondialdehyde

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

CAT

Catalase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Mathew
    • 1
  • Michael A. Barletta
    • 1
  • Cesar A. Lau-Cam
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health ProfessionsSt. John’s University, JamaicaNew YorkUSA

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