Advertisement

Taurine 8 pp 177-185 | Cite as

The Effects of Chronic Taurine Supplementation on Motor Learning

  • Allison SantoraEmail author
  • Lorenz S. Neuwirth
  • William J. L’Amoreaux
  • Abdeslem El Idrissi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 775)

Abstract

Taurine is one of the most abundant nonprotein amino acids shown to be essential for the development, survival, and growth of vertebrate neurons. We previously demonstrated that chronic taurine supplementation during neonatal development results in changes in the GABAergic system (El Idrissi, Neurosci Lett 436:19–22, 2008). The brains of mice chronically treated with taurine have decreased levels of GABAAβ subunits and increased expression of GAD and GABA, which contributes to hyperexcitability. This down regulation of GABAAreceptor subunit expression and function may be due to a sustained interaction of taurine with GABAAreceptors. This desensitization decreases the efficacy of the inhibitory synapses at the postsynaptic membrane. If changes occur in the GABAergic system as a possible compensatory mechanism due to taurine administration, then it is important to study all aspects by which taurine induces hyperexcitability and affects motor behavior. We therefore hypothesized that modification of the GABAergic system in response to taurine supplementation influences motor learning capacity in mice. To test this hypothesis, the rotarod task was employed after chronic taurine supplementation in drinking water (0.05% for 4 weeks). Control animals receiving no taurine supplementation were also tested in order to determine the difference in motor learning ability between groups. Each animal was trained on the rotarod apparatus for 7 days at an intermediate speed of 24 rpm in order to establish baseline performance. On the testing day, each animal was subjected to eight different predefined speeds (5, 8, 15, 20, 24, 31, 33, and 44 rpm). From our observations, the animals that underwent chronic taurine supplementation appeared to have a diminished motor learning capacity in comparison to control animals. The taurine-fed mice displayed minor improvements after repeated training when compared to controls. During the testing session the taurine-fed mice also exhibited a shorter latency to fall, as the task requirements became more demanding.

Keywords

Motor Learning Supplementary Motor Area Postsynaptic Membrane GABAergic System Minor Improvement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Afifi AK (2003) The basal ganglia: a neural network with more than motor function. Semin Pediatr Neurol 10(1):3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbeau A, Inoue N, Tsukada Y, Butterworth RF (1975) The neuropharmacology of taurine. Life Sci 17:669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnard EA, Skolnick P, Olson RW, Mohler H, Seighart W, Biggio G, Braestrup C, Bateson AN, Langer SZ (1998) International union of pharmacology. XV. Subtypes of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors: classification on the basis of subunit structure and receptor function. Pharmacol Rev 50:291–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chepkova AN, Doreulee N, Yanovsky Y, Mukhopadhyah D, Haas HL, Sergeeva OA (2002) Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine. Eur J Neurosci 16:1523–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Connolly CN, Wooltorton JRA, Smart TG, Moss SJ (1996) Subcellular localization of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors is determined by receptor b subunits (polatityion-channel). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:9899–9904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crawley JN (2007) What’s wrong with my mouse?: Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. El Idrissi A, Trenkner E (1999) Growth factors and taurine protect against excitotoxicity by stabilizing calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. J Neurosci 19:9459–9468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. El Idrissi A, Messing J, Scalia J, Trenkner E (2003) Prevention of epileptic seizures through taurine. Adv Exp Med Biol 526:515–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El Idrissi A, Trenkner E (2004) Taurine as a modulator of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurochem Res 29(1):189–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El Idrissi A (2006) Taurine 6. Taurine and brain excitability. Adv Exp Med Biol 583(5):315–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El Idrissi A (2008) Taurine improves learning and retention in aged mice. Neurosci Lett 436:19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frosini M, Sesti C, Dragoni S, Valoti M, Palmi M, Dixon HB, Machetti F, Sgaragli G (2003) Interaction of taurine and structurally related analogues with the GABAergic system and taurine binding sites of rabbit brain. Br J Pharmacol 138:1163–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayes KC, Carey RE, Schmidt SY (1975) Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat. Science 188:949–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huxtable RJ, Lleu PL (1992) A possible relationship between taurine and synaptogenesis in the developing rat brain. Pharmacol Res 26(Suppl 1):146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ikeda HC (1977) Effects of taurine on alcohol withdrawal. Lancet 2(8036):509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaffe DB, Brown TH (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptor activation induces calcium waves within hippocampal dendrites. J Neurophysiol 72:471–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Joseph MH, Emson PC (1976) Taurine and cobalt induced epilepsy in the rat: a biochemical and electrocorticographic study. J Neurochem 27:1495–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kater SB, Mattson MP, Cohan C, Conner J (1988) Calcium regulation of the neuronal growth cone. Trends Neurosci 11:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lalonde R, Bensoula AN, Fiali M (1995) Rotarod sensorimotor learning in cerebellar mutant mice. Neurosci Res 22:423–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. L’Amoreaux WJ, Marsillo A, El Idrissi A (2010) Pharmacological characterization of GABAA receptors in taurine-fed mice. J Biomed Sci 17(Suppl 1):S14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Perry TL (1976) Hereditary mental depression with taurine deficiency: further studies, including a therapeutic trial of taurine administration. In: Huxtable R, Barbeau A (eds) Taurine. Raven, New York, pp 365–374Google Scholar
  22. Purves D et al (2008) Neuroscience, 4th edn, Modulation of movement by the cerebellum. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA, pp 475–494Google Scholar
  23. Rustay NR, Wahlsten D, Crabbe JC (2003) Influence of task parameters on rotarod performance and sensitivity to ethanol in mice. Behav Brain Res 141(2):237–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sturman JA, Rassin DK, Gaull GE (1977) Taurine in developing rat brain: transfer of 35S taurine to pups via the milk. Pediatr Res 11:28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu JY, Tang XW, Schloss JV, Faiman MD (1998) Regulation of taurine biosynthesis and its physiological in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol 442:339–345PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allison Santora
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lorenz S. Neuwirth
    • 1
    • 2
  • William J. L’Amoreaux
    • 1
    • 2
  • Abdeslem El Idrissi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, 6S-143College of Staten Island/CUNYStaten IslandUSA
  2. 2.City University of New York Graduate SchoolNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations