Ice Cream pp 313-352 | Cite as

Ice Cream Structure

  • H. Douglas Goff
  • Richard W. Hartel


Ice cream has a very complex structure, with multiple phases that can influence product textural quality and physical attributes including shape retention and structural collapse during melting. The mix ingredients supply water, fat, milk solids-not-fat (casein micelles, whey proteins, lactose, and milk salts), sugars (sucrose and partially hydrolyzed starch, including glucose, maltose, and higher saccharides), stabilizers, and emulsifiers. Air is subsequently added prior to dynamic freezing. All of these contribute to the structural elements in ice cream. Fat either remains as globular, emulsified droplets, or is converted to a partially crystalline fat structure, a process that is enhanced by the action of the emulsifiers at the fat globule interface. Water is converted to ice crystals. Air is whipped into small bubbles. The sugars and stabilizers become freeze-concentrated in the unfrozen serum phase. The functionality of proteins contributes to the fat and air structures by adsorbing to interfaces and to the unfrozen phase by providing bulk and water-holding properties, both of which add viscosity. This chapter reviews the formation and significance of these structural elements. It also discusses the effect of these structures on physical properties of ice cream, including thermal diffusivity, meltdown properties, and rheological/mechanical properties.


Whey Protein Casein Micelle Serum Phase Partial Coalescence Dynamic Freezing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adleman R, Hartel RW (2001) Lipid crystallization and its effect on the physical structure of ice cream. In: Garti N, Sato K (eds) Crystallization processes in fats and lipid systems. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 381–427Google Scholar
  2. Aleong J, Frochot S, Goff HD (2008) Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate. J Food Sci 73(9):E463–E468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barfod NM, Krog N, Larsen G, Buchheim W (1991) Effects of emulsifiers on protein-fat interaction in ice cream mix during aging. Fett Wiss Tecknol 93:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazmi A, Duquenoy A, Relkin P (2007) Aeration of low fat dairy emulsions: effects of saturated–unsaturated triglycerides. Int Dairy J 17:1021–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Yoseph E and Hartel RW. 1998. Computer simulation of ice recrystallization in ice cream during storage. J Food Engineering 38:309–331Google Scholar
  6. Berger KG (1997) Ice cream. In: Friberg SE, Larsson K (eds) Food emulsions, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 413–490Google Scholar
  7. Berger KG, White GW (1979) Ice cream. In: Vaughan G (ed) Food microscopy. Academic, London, pp 499–529Google Scholar
  8. Bolliger S, Goff HD, Tharp BW (2000a) Correlation between colloidal properties of ice cream mix and ice cream. Int Dairy J 10:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolliger S, Kornbrust B, Goff HD, Tharp BW, Windhab EJ (2000b) Influence of emulsifiers on ice cream produced by conventional freezing and low temperature extrusion processing. Int Dairy J 10:497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bourriot S, Garnier C, Doublier J-L (1999a) Phase separation, rheology and structure of micellar casein-galactomannan mixtures. Int Dairy J 9:353–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourriot S, Garnier C, Doublier J-L (1999b) Micellar-casein-κ-carrageenan mixtures. I. Phase separation and ultrastructure. Carbohydr Polym 40:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caillet A, Cogne C, Andrieu J, Laurent P, Rivoire A (2003) Characterization of ice cream structure by direct optical microscopy. Influence of freezing parameters. Lebensm Wiss U Technol 36:743–749Google Scholar
  13. Caldwell KB, Goff HD, Stanley DW (1992) A low temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. I. Techniques and general microstructure. Food Struct 11:1–9Google Scholar
  14. Chang Y-H, Hartel RW (2002a) Measurement of air cell distributions in dairy foams. Int Dairy J 12:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang Y-H, Hartel RW (2002b) Development of air cells in a batch ice cream freezer. J Food Eng 55(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang Y-H, Hartel RW (2002c) Stability of air cells in ice cream during hardening and storage. J Food Eng 55(1):59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen J, Dickinson E (1993) Time-dependent competitive adsorption of milk proteins and surfactants in oil in water emulsions. J Sci Food Agric 62:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook KLK, Hartel RW (2010) Mechanisms of ice formation in ice cream production. Compr Rev Food Sci 9(2):213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook KLK, Hartel RW (2011) Effect of freezing temperature and warming rate on dendrite break-up when freezing ice cream mix. Int Dairy J 21:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Courthaudon J-L, Dickinson E, Dalgleish DG (1991) Competitive adsorption of β-casein and nonionic surfactants in oil in water emulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 145:390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crilly JF, Russell AB, Cox AR, Cebula DJ (2008) Designing multiscale structures of desired properties of ice cream. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:6362–6367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Da Silva E Jr, da Silva ERT, Murumatsu M, da Silva Lannes SC, da Silva Lannes SC (2010) Transient process in ice creams evaluated by laser speckles. Food Res Int 43:1470–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalgleish DG, Morris ER (1988) Interactions between carrageenans and casein micelles: electrophoretic and hydrodynamic properties of the particles. Food Hydrocoll 2:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dalgleish DG, Srinivasan M, Singh H (1995) Surface properties of oil-in-water emulsion droplets containing casein and Tween 60. J Agric Food Chem 43:2351–2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drewett EM, Hartel RW (2007) Ice crystallization in a scraped surface freezer. J Food Eng 78:1060–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dubey UK, White CH (1997) Ice cream shrinkage. J Dairy Sci 80:3439–3444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisner MD, Wildmoser H, Windhab EJ (2005) Air cell microstructuring in a high viscous ice cream matrix. Colloid Surf A 263:390–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. El-Nagar G, Clowes G, Tudorica CM, Kuri V, Brennan CS (2002) Rheological quality and stability of yog-ice cream with added inulin. Int J Dairy Technol 55(2):89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Euston SE, Singh H, Munro PA, Dalgleish DG (1995) Competitive adsorption between sodium caseinate and oil-soluble and water-soluble surfactants in oil-in-water emulsions. J Food Sci 60:1151–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Euston SE, Singh H, Munro PA, Dalgleish DG (1996) Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate or whey protein isolate as influenced by glycerol monostearate. J Food Sci 61:916–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flores AA, Goff HD (1999) Ice crystal size distributions in dynamically frozen model solutions and ice cream as affected by stabilizers. J Dairy Sci 82:1399–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gelin J-L, Poyen L, Courthadon J-L, Le Meste M, Lorient D (1994) Structural changes in oil-in-water emulsions during the manufacture of ice cream. Food Hydrocoll 8:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gelin J-L, Poyen L, Rizzotti R, Dacremont C, Le Meste M, Lorient D (1996a) Interactions between food components in ice cream. Part 2. Structure-texture relationships. J Texture Stud 27:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gelin J-L, Poyen L, Rizzotti R, Le Meste M, Courthadon J-L, Lorient D (1996b) Interactions between food components in ice cream. Part 1. Unfrozen emulsions. Food Hydrocoll 10:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goff HD (1997) Colloidal aspects of ice cream—a review. Int Dairy J 7:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goff HD (2002) Formation and stabilisation of structure in ice cream and related products. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 7:432–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goff HD, Jordan WK (1989) Action of emulsifiers in promoting fat destabilization during the manufacture of ice cream. J Dairy Sci 72:18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goff HD, Sahagian ME (1996) Glass transitions in aqueous carbohydrate solutions and their relevance to frozen food stability. Thermochim Acta 280:449–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goff HD, Liboff M, Jordan WK, Kinsella JE (1987) The effects of Polysorbate 80 on the fat emulsion in ice cream mix: evidence from transmission electron microscopy studies. Food Microstruct 6:193–198Google Scholar
  40. Goff HD, Freslon B, Sahagian ME, Hauber TD, Stone AP, Stanley DW (1995) Structural development in ice cream-dynamic rheological measurements. J Texture Stud 26:517–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goff HD, Verespej E, Smith AK (1999a) A study of fat and air structures in ice cream. Int Dairy J 9:817–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goff HD, Ferdinando D, Schorsch C (1999b) Fluorescence microscopy to study galactomannan structure in frozen sucrose and milk protein solutions. Food Hydrocoll 13:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goff HD, Verespej E, Jermann D (2003) Glass transitions in frozen sucrose solutions are influenced by solute inclusions within ice crystals. Thermochim Acta 399:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goh KKT, Ye A, Dale N (2006) Characterisation of ice cream containing flaxseed oil. Int J Food Sci Technol 41:946–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Granger C, Leger A, Barey P, Langendorff V, Cansell M (2005) Influence of formulation on the structural networks in ice cream. Int Dairy J 15:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hartel RW (1996) Ice crystallization during manufacture of ice cream. Trends Food Sci Technol 7(10):315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hartel RW. 2001. Crystallization in Foods. Aspen Publ., NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hartel RW, Muse M, Sofjan R (2003) Effects of structural attributes on hardness and melting rate of ice cream. In Goff HD, Tharp BW (eds) Ice cream II. Special issue 401, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, p 124–139Google Scholar
  49. Hayes MG, Lefrancois AC, Waldron DS, Goff HD, Kelly AL (2003) Influence of high pressure homogenisation on some characteristics of ice cream. Milchwissenschaft 58(9/10):519–523Google Scholar
  50. Hindmarsh JP, Russell AB, Chen XD (2007) Fundamentals of spray freezing of foods—microstructure of frozen droplets. J Food Eng 78:136–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huppertz T, Smiddy MA, Goff HD, Kelly AL (2011) Effects of high pressure treatment of mix on ice cream manufacture. Int Dairy J 21:718–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jonkman MJ, Walstra P, van Boekel MAJS, Cebula DJ (1999) Behavior of casein micelles under conditions comparable to those in ice cream. Int Dairy J 9:201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Koxholt MMR, Eisenmann B, Hinrichs J (2000) Effect of process parameters on the structure of ice cream. Eur Dairy Mag 12(1):27–30Google Scholar
  54. Koxholt MMR, Eisenmann B, Hinrichs J (2001) Effect of the fat globule sizes on the meltdown of ice cream. J Dairy Sci 84:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Le Reverend BJD, Norton IT, Cox PW, Spyropoulis F (2010) Colloidal aspects of eating. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 15:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lim S-Y, Swanson BG, Ross CF, Clark S (2008) High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream. J Dairy Sci 91:1308–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Linder MB (2009) Hydrophobins: proteins that self-assemble at interfaces. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 14:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mendez-Velasco C, Goff HD (2011) Enhancement of fat colloidal interactions for the preparation of ice cream high in unsaturated fat. Int Dairy J 21:540–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mendez-Velasco C, Goff HD (2012a) Fat structures as affected by unsaturated or saturated monoglyceride and their effect on ice cream structure, texture and stability. Int Dairy J 24:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mendez-Velasco C, Goff HD (2012b) Fat aggregation in ice cream: a study on the types of fat interactions. Food Hydrocoll 29:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Muse MR, Hartel RW (2004) Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness. J Dairy Sci 87:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Patmore JV, Goff HD, Fernandes S (2003) Cryo-gelation of galactomannans in ice cream model systems. Food Hydrocoll 17:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pawar AB, Caggioni M, Ergun R, Hartel RW, Spicer PT (2012) Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets with internal microstructure. Faraday Discuss 158:341–350. doi: 10.1039/C2FD20029E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pelan BMC, Watts KM, Campbell IJ, Lips A (1997) The stability of aerated milk protein emulsions in the presence of small molecule surfactants. J Dairy Sci 80:2631–2638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Persson M (2009) Nutritionally optimized ice cream fats. Lipid Technol 21(30):62–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Regand A, Goff HD (2002) Effect of biopolymers on structure and ice recrystallization in dynamically-frozen ice cream model systems. J Dairy Sci 85:2722–2732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Regand A, Goff HD (2003) Structure and ice recrystallization in frozen stabilized ice cream model systems. Food Hydrocoll 17:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Regand A, Goff HD (2006) Ice recrystallization inhibition of ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass in model solutions and ice cream. J Dairy Sci 89:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Relkin P, Sourdet S, Smith AK, Goff HD, Cuvelier G (2006) Effects of whey protein aggregation on fat globule microstructure in whipped frozen emulsions. Food Hydrocoll 20:1050–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roos YR (2010) Glass transition temperature its relevance in food processing. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 1:469–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Russell AB, Cheney PE, Wantling SD (1999) Influence of freezing conditions on ice crystallization in ice cream. J Food Eng 39:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sahagian ME, Goff HD (1995) Thermal, mechanical and molecular relaxation properties of ­stabilized sucrose solutions at sub-zero temperatures. Food Res Int 28:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sakurai K, Kokubo S, Hakamata K, Tomita M, Yoshida S (1996) Effect of production conditions on ice cream melting resistance and hardness. Milchwissenschaft 51(8):451–454Google Scholar
  74. Schawe JEK. A quantitative DSC analysis of the metastable phase behavior of the sucrose-water system. Thermochim. Acta 451:115–125Google Scholar
  75. Schorsch C, Jones MG, Norton IT (1999) Thermodynamic incompatibility and microstructure of milk protein/locust bean gum/sucrose systems. Food Hydrocoll 13:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schorsch C, Jones MG, Norton IT (2000) Phase behaviour of pure micellar casein/κ-carrageenan systems in milk salt ultrafiltrate. Food Hydrocoll 14:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Segall KI, Goff HD (1999) Influence of adsorbed milk protein type and surface concentration on the quiescent and shear stability of butteroil emulsions. Int Dairy J 9:683–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Snoeren THM, Payens TAJ, Jeunink J, Both P (1975) Electrostatic interaction between κ-­carrageenan and κ-casein. Milchwissenschaft 30:393–396Google Scholar
  79. Snoeren THM, Both P, Schmidt DG (1976) An electron-microscopic study of carrageenan and its interaction with κ-casein. Neth Milk Dairy J 30:132–141Google Scholar
  80. Sofjan RP, Hartel RW (2004) Effects of overrun on structural and physical properties of ice cream. Int Dairy J 14:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Spagnuolo P, Dalgleish DG, Goff HD, Morris ER (2005) Kappa-carrageenan interactions in systems containing casein micelles and polysaccharide stabilizers. Food Hydrocoll 19:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sung KK, Goff HD (2010) Effect of solid fat content on structure in ice creams containing palm kernel oil and high-oleic sunflower oil. J Food Sci 75(3):C274–C279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Syrbe A, Bauer WJ, Klostermeyer H (1998) Polymer science concepts in dairy systems. An overview of milk protein and food hydrocolloid interaction. Int Dairy J 3:179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thaiudom S, Goff HD (2003) Effect of k-carrageenan on milk protein polysaccharide mixtures. Int Dairy J 13:763–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tharp BW, Forrest B, Swan C, Dunning L, Hilmoe M (1998) Basic factors affecting ice cream meltdown. In: Buchheim W (ed) Ice cream: proceedings of the international symposium held in Athens, Greece, 18–19 Sept 1997. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium, p 54–64Google Scholar
  86. Tosaki M, Kitamura Y, Satake T, Tsurutani T (2009) Effects of homogenization conditions on the physical properties of high fat ice cream. Int J Dairy Technol 62(4):577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Turan S, Kirkland M, Trusty PA, Campbell I (1999) Interaction of fat and air in ice cream. Dairy Ind Int 64:27–31Google Scholar
  88. Vega C, Goff HD (2005) Phase separation in soft-serve ice cream mixes: rheology and microstructure. Int Dairy J 15:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vega C, Andrew RA, Goff HD (2004) Serum separation in soft serve ice cream mixes. Milchwissenschaft 59:284–287Google Scholar
  90. Vega C, Dalgleish DG, Goff HD (2005) Effect of κ-carrageenan addition to dairy emulsions ­containing sodium caseinate and locust bean gum. Food Hydrocoll 19:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Volkert M, Puaud M, Wille H-J, Knorr D (2011) Effects of high pressure-low temperature ­treatment on freezing behavior, sensorial properties and air cell distributions in sugar rich dairy based frozen food foam and emulsions. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 13:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wilbey RA, Cooke T, Dimos G (1998) Effects of solute concentration, overrun and storage on the hardness of ice cream. In: Buchheim W (ed) Ice cream: proceedings of the international symposium held in Athens, Greece, 18–19 Sept 1997. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium, p 186–187Google Scholar
  93. Wildmoser H, Windhab EJ (2001) Impact of flow geometry and processing parameters in ultra low temperature ice-cream extrusion (ULTICE) on ice-cream microstructure. Eur Dairy Mag 13(10):26–32Google Scholar
  94. Wildmoser H, Scheiwiller J, Windhab EJ (2004) Impact of disperse microstructure on rheology and quality aspects of ice cream. Lebensm Wiss Technol 37:881–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Xinyi E, Pei ZJ, Schmidt KA (2010) Ice cream: foam formation and stabilization—a review. Food Rev Int 26:122–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhang Z, Goff HD (2004) Protein distribution at air interfaces in dairy foams and ice cream as affected by casein dissociation and emulsifiers. Int Dairy J 14:647–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang Z, Goff HD (2005) On fat destabilization and composition of the air interface in ice cream containing saturated and unsaturated monoglyceride. Int Dairy J 15:495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Douglas Goff
    • 1
  • Richard W. Hartel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations