The Role of Taurine on Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation
Taurine abundantly contained in the skeletal muscle has been considered as one of essential factors for the differentiation and growth of skeletal muscles. The previous studies in the taurine transporter knockout mice showed that deficiency of taurine content in the skeletal muscle caused incomplete muscular developments, morphological abnormalities, and exercise abilities. In fetal and neonatal periods, taurine must be an essential amino acid due to no biosynthesis capacity, and therefore, taurine should be endogenously supplied through placenta and maternal milk. In general cell culture condition, taurine contained in the culture medium is absent or few, and therefore, most of cultured cells are in taurine-deficient condition. In the present study, we confirmed, in cultured mouse differentiable myoblast, taurine treatment significantly enhanced the differentiation to myotube in a dose-dependent manner, while these effects were abrogated by inhibitions of taurine transport and Ca2+ signaling pathway.
The present study suggested that exogenous taurine might play a key role on the mature differentiation/growth of the skeletal muscle during development period through Ca2+ signaling pathway, and therefore, taurine would contribute the muscle recovery after damages.
KeywordsC2C12 Cell C2C12 Myoblast C2C12 Myotube Taurine Transport Taurine Content
Myosin heavy chain
Myocyte-enriched calcineurin-interacting protein
This work was supported in part by Kakenhi grants (21790633) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
- Ito T, Kimura Y, Uozumi Y, Takai M, Muraoka S, Matsuda T, Ueki K, Yoshiyama M, Ikawa M, Okabe M, Schaffer SW, Fujio Y, Azuma J (2008) Taurine depletion caused by knocking out the taurine transporter gene leads to cardiomyopathy with cardiac atrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 44:927–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramamoorthy S, Leibach FH, Mahesh VB, Han H, Yang FT, Blakely RD, Ganapathy V (1994) Functional characterization and chromosomal localization of a cloned taurine transporter from human placenta. Biochem J 15:893–900Google Scholar
- Warskulat U, Flogel U, Jacoby C, Hartwig HG, Thewissen M, Merx MW, Molojavyi A, Heller-Stilb B, Schrader J, Haussinger D (2004) Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised. FASEB J 18:577–579PubMedGoogle Scholar