Advertisement

Taurine 8 pp 277-287 | Cite as

Protective Effect of Taurine on the Decreased Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitter Levels in the Brain of Mice Exposed to Arsenic

  • Xiaohui Liu
  • Fengyuan PiaoEmail author
  • Yachen Li
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 776)

Abstract

Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As2O3 through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As2O3 and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

Keywords

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Synaptic Vesicle Tryptophan Hydroxylase Monoamine Neurotransmitter Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

As

Arsenic

DBH

Dopamine beta hydroxylase

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

TPH

Tryptophan hydroxylase

NE

Norepinephrine

DA

Dopamine

5-HT

Serotonin

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30571584) for financial support.

References

  1. Abernathy CO, Liu YP, Longfellow D, Aposhian HV, Beck B, Fowler B, Goyer R, Menzer R, Rossman T, Thompson C, Waalkes M (1999) Arsenic health effects, mechanisms of actions, and research issues. Environ Health Perspect 107:593–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes NM, Sharp T (1999) A review of central 5-HT receptors and their function. Neuropharmacology 38:1083–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chepkova AN, Doreulee N, Yanovsky Y, Mukhopadhyay D, Haas HL, Sergeeva OA (2002) Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine. Eur J Neurosci 16:1523–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chepkova AN, Sergeeva OA, Haas HL (2005) Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal transmission by taurine: role of dopamine and acetylcholine. Cell Mol Neurobiol 25:767–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Das J, Ghosh J, Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC (2009) Arsenic-induced oxidative cerebral disorders: protection by taurine. Drug Chem Toxicol 32:93–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das J, Ghosh J, Manna P, Sil PC (2010) Protective role of taurine against arsenic-induced mitochondria-dependent hepatic apoptosis via the inhibition of PKCdelta-JNK pathway. PLoS One 5:e12602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delgado JM, Dufour L, Grimaldo JI, Carrizales L, Rodríguez VM, Jiménez-Capdeville ME (2000) Effects of arsenite on central monoamines and plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. Toxicol Lett 117:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan G, Feng C, Li Y, Wang C, Yan J, Li W, Feng J, Shi X, Bi Y (2009) Selection of nutrients for prevention or amelioration of lead-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. Ann Occup Hyg 53:341–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flora SJ, Bhadauria S, Kannan GM, Singh N (2007) Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: a review. J Environ Biol 28(2 Suppl):333–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao X, Yang X, Zhang B (2011) Neuroprotection of taurine against bilirubin-induced elevation of apoptosis and intracellular free calcium ion in vivo. Toxicol Mech Methods 21:383–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hong Y, Piao F, Zhao Y, Li S, Wang Y, Liu P (2009) Subchronic exposure to arsenic decreased Sdha expression in the brain of mice. Neurotoxicology 30:538–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huo T, Chang B, Zhang Y, Chen Z, Li W, Jiang H (2012) Alteration of amino acid neurotransmitters in brain tissues of immature rats treated with realgar. J Pharm Biomed Anal 7:120–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iio W, Matsukawa N, Tsukahara T, Toyoda A (2012) The effects of oral taurine administration on behavior and hippocampal signal transduction in rats. Amino Acids 43:2037–2046Google Scholar
  14. Jomova K, Valko M (2011) Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology 283:65–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Junyent F, Utrera J, Romero R, Pallàs M, Camins A, Duque D, Auladell C (2009) Prevention of epilepsy by taurine treatments in mice experimental model. J Neurosci Res 87:1500–1508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ma N, Sasoh M, Kawanishi S, Sugiura H, Piao F (2010) Protection effect of taurine on nitrosative stress in the mice brain with chronic exposure to arsenic. J Biomed Sci 17(Suppl 1):S7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Myhrer T (2003) Neurotransmitter systems involved in learning and memory in the rat: a meta-analysis based on studies of four behavioral tasks. Brain Res Rev 41:268–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ozan G, Turkozkan N, Bircan FS, Balabanli B (2012) Effect of taurine on brain 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in endotoxemia. Inflammation 35:665–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pan C, Giraldo GS, Prentice H, Wu JY (2010) Taurine protection of PC12 cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxidative stress. J Biomed Sci 17(Suppl 1):S17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rios R, Zarazúa S, Santoyo ME, Sepúlveda-Saavedra J, Romero-Díaz V, Jiménez V, Pérez-Severiano F, Vidal-Cantú G, Delgado JM, Jiménez-Capdeville ME (2009) Decreased nitric oxide markers and morphological changes in the brain of arsenic-exposed rats. Toxicology 261:68–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Szot P, Reigel CE, White SS, Veith RC (1996) Alterations in mRNA expression of systems that regulate neurotransmitter synaptic content in seizure-naive genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR): transporter proteins and rate-limiting synthesizing enzymes for norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. Mol Brain Res 43:233–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tripathi N, Kannan GM, Pant BP, Jaiswal DK, Malhotra PR, Flora SJ (1997) Arsenic-induced changes in certain neurotransmitter levels and their recoveries following chelation in rat whole brain. Toxicol Lett 2:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang Y, Li S, Piao F, Hong Y, Liu P, Zhao Y (2009) Arsenic down-regulates the expression of Camk4, an important gene related to cerebellar LTD in mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol 31:318–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wasserman GA, Liu X, Parvez F, Ahsan H, Factor-Litvak P, van Geen A, Slavkovich V, LoIacono NJ, Cheng Z, Hussain I, Momotaj H, Graziano JH (2004) Water arsenic exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 112:1329–1333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wright RO, Amarasiriwardena C, Woolf AD, Jim R, Bellinger DC (2006) Neuropsychological correlates of hair arsenic, manganese, and cadmium levels in school-age children residing near a hazardous waste site. Neurotoxicology 27:210–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zarazua S, Ríos R, Delgado JM, Santoyo ME, Ortiz-Pérez D, Jiménez-Capdeville ME (2010) Decreased arginine methylation and myelin alterations in arsenic exposed rats. Neurotoxicology 31:94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang ZM, Huang SW (2008) Intervention effect of taurine on neurotoxicity of manganese in rat’s prefrontal cortex. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 26:601–604PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Occupational and Environmental of HealthDalian Medical UniversityDalianChina

Personalised recommendations