Advertisement

Neuroendocrine Tumors

  • Joseph R. PisegnaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB, volume 7)

Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract share many pathologic and molecular features as well as management approaches. This chapter will focus on neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas, although previously thought to be relatively rare, are becoming increasingly recognized in clinical practice and continue to pose a significant challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. The diagnosis is facilitated when there is a high index of suspicion based on clinical symptoms and confirmation can be made by biopsy or cytological sampling and pathological diagnosis. The utility of biochemical testing is a useful adjunct not only for the diagnosis but also for the prognosis and therapeutic follow-up. Over the past decade, there has been significant progress made in the identification of the biology and treatment of NETs. In this chapter, we will review the epidemiology, pathology, and clinical syndromes for the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, formerly referred to as pancreatic or islet cell tumors. The latter part of this chapter will focus on the more recent advances in localization modalities and treatment options, especially given the newly FDA-approved chemotherapy for their treatment.

Keywords

Neuroendocrine Tumor Gastric Acid Secretion Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Pancreatic Polypeptide Serum Gastrin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan MM, et al. Pancreas. 2010;39(6):753–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boden G. Insulinoma and glucagonoma. Semin Oncol. 1987;14:253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vinik AI, Woltering EA, Warner RR, et al. Go VL; North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS). Pancreas. 2010;39(6):713–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klimstra DS, Modlin IR, Coppola D, Lloyd RV, Suster S. Pancreas. 2010;39(6):707–12. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lew EA, Lewin KL, Zarchy T, Pisegna JR. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jun;94(6):1692–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saclarides TJ, Szekuga D, Staren ED. Dis Col Rectum. 1994;37:635–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gaffey MJ, Mills SE, Lack EE. Am J Surg Path. 1990;14:1010–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Howard TJ, Stabile BE, Zinner MJ, et al. Am J Surg. 1990;159(2):258–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang HS, Oh DS, Ohning GV, Pisegna JR. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33(3):225–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wawrukiewicz AS. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1982;5:318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breatnach RS. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1985;9:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilkinson DS. Trans St John’s Hosp Dermatol Soc. 1973;59:244.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Almdal TP. Gut. 1990;31:946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holst JJ. Glucagon-producing tumors. In: Cohen S, Soloway D, eds. Hormone producing tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1978:57.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marynick SP, Fagadau WR, Duncan LA. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abraira C. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;39:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shepherd ME. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parr JH. Postgrad Med J. 1985;61:737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Altimari AF. Surgery. 1986;100:989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rosenbaum A, Flourie B, Chagnon S, et al. Digestion. 1989;42(2):116–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maton PN. Digestive Dis Sci. 1989;34:285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leichter SB. Medicine. 1980;59:100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stacpole PW. Endocr Rev. 1981;2:347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holst JJ, Helland S, Ingemansson S, et al. Diabetologia. 1979;17:151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stacpoole PW. Endocr Rev. 1981;2:347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jones B. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1983;7:334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stevens FM. Gut. 1984;25:784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rowland KJ, Brubaker PL. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301(1):G1–8. Epub 2011 Apr 28. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Doden G, Ryan IG, Eisenscmid BL, et al. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kasper CS. Cutis. 1992;49(2):120–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rappaport KD, White JW. J Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70(8):785–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mozell E, Stenzel P, Woltering EA, et al. Curr Probl Surg. 1990;27(6):301–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Galbut DL, Markowitz AM. Am J Surg. 1980;139:682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gierchsky KE, Halse J, Mathisen W, et al. Scand J Gastro. 1980;15:129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Glickman MH, Hart MJ, White TT. Am J Surg. 1980;140:119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Le Quesne P, Nabarro JD, Kutz A, et al. Br J Surg. 1979;66:373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Service FJ, dale AJ, Elveback LR, et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 1976;51:417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van Heerden JA, Edis AJ, Service FJ. Ann Surg. 1979;189:677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jaksic T, Yaman M, Thorner P, Wesson DK, Filler RM, Shandling B. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(10):1315–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meleo K. Probl Vet Med. 1990;2(4):602–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eckersley GN, Fockema A, Williams JH, et al. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1987;58(4):187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sawicki PT, Baba T, Berger M, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1992;3(4 Suppl):S64–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Svartberg J, Stridsberg M, Wilander E, et al. J Intern Med. 1996;239(2):181–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garner PR, Tsang R. Obstet Gynecol. 1989;73(5 Pt 2):847–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Merimee TJ. N Engl J Med. 1974;291:1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Davidson MB. Manual of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co; 1994:459.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fajans SS, Vinik AI. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1989;18(1):45–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Merimee TJ. Diabetes. 1977;26:161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gutman RA. N Engl J Med. 1971;284:1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sherman BM. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972;35:271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cohen RM. Metabolism. 1986;35:1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grunberger G, Weiner JL, Silverman R, et al. Ann Int Med. 1988;108:252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rendell M. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1983;20(2):105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bonser AM, Garcia-Webb P. Ann Clin Biochem. 1981;18(Pt 4):200–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grant CS. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1996;10(4):645–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gray RK. Radiology. 1970;97:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stark DA. Radiology. 1984;150:491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rossi P. AJR. 1985;144:57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vinayek R. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1990;19:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Berg CL. Med Clin North Am. 1991;75:903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Day JP, Richter JE. Gastroent Clin N Am. 1990;19(3):587–607.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hirschowitz BI. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(4 Suppl):44S-48S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sugg SL, Norton JA, Fraker DL, et al. Ann Surg. 1993;218:138–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    van Heerden JA. Surgery. 1986;100:971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fishbeyn VA, Norton JA, Benya RV, et al. Annals Intern Med. 1993;119:199–206.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thompson JC. Ann Surg. 1983;197:594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vinik AI. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105:956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kohan E, Oh D, Wang H, Hazany S, Ohning G, Pisegna JR. Diagn Ther Endosc. 2009;2009:298381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schjonsby H, Willassen Y. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1977;12:205–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pisegna JR, Lew E, Tarasova N, et al. Gastroenterology. 1998;114(4):4797.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pisegna JR, Lew EA, Martin P, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:2874–2880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pisegna JR, deWeerth A, Huppi K, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 1992;189:296–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wank SA, Pisegna JR, de Weerth A. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89:8691–8695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wolfe MM, Jensen RT. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(19):1200–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bloom SR, Long RG, Bryant MG, et al. Gastroenterology. 1980;78:1143.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Vezzadini C, Poggioli R, Casoni I, et al. Panminerva Med. 1996;38(4):255–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Arps H, Dietel M, Schulz A, et al. Virchows Arch. 1986: 408–497.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Oh DS, Wang HS, Ohning GV, Pisegna JR. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(12):1467–73. Epub 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fajans SS, Floyd JC. Fasting hypoglycemia in adults. N Engl J Med. 1976;294:766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Domschke S, Domschke W, Bloom SR, et al. Gut. 1978;29:1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pisegna JR, Norton JA, Slimak GG, et al. Gastroenterology. 1992;102(3):767–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Richardson CT. Gastroenterology. 1985;89:357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McArthur KE. Gastroenterology. 1985;88:939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stewart CA, Termanini B, Sutliff VE, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176:224–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Maton PN. Drugs. 1996;52(1):33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Frucht H. Dig Dis Sci. 1991;36:394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Metz DC. Gastroenterology. 1992;103:1498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Maton PN. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1991;5(Suppl 1):25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Frucht H, Maton PN, Jensen RT. Dig Dis Sci. 1991;36:394–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Metz DC, Pisegna JR, Fishbeyn VA, et al. Gastroenterology. 1992;103:1498–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Garnett WR. Ann Pharmacother. 1996;30(12):1425–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Metz DC, Pisegna JR, Ringham GL, et al. Dig Dis Sci. 1992;38:245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Metz DC, Lew E, Forsmark CE, et al. Gastroenterology. 1998;114(4):G0926.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pisegna JR, Huang M, Asvar C, et al. Gastroenterology. 1998;114(4):G1065.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lew EA, Pisegna JR, Starr JA, et al. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:696–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nieto JM, Pisegna JR. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006;7(2):169–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Helander HF, Rutgersson K, Helander KG, et al. Gastroenterology. 1992;27:875–883.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Waldum HL, Brenna E, Kleveland PM, et al. Dig Dis. 1995;13(1):25–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cadiot G, Vissuzaine C, Potet F, et al. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40(6):1275–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Solvell L. Digestion. 1990;47(Suppl 1):59–63. discussion 76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Solcia E, Capella C, Fiocca R, et al. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14(6):503–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bordi C, D’Adda T, Azzoni C, et al. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19(Suppl 1):S8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Delcore R, Friesen SR. Surgery. 1992;112(6):1016–22. discussion 1022–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    O’Dorisio TM. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1989;18:545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zeng N, Kang T, Wong H, Walsh JH, Sachs GA, Pisegna JR. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1383–1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Alberti KGMM, Oxbury J, Higgins G. Br Med J. 1972;1:87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    O’Dorisio TM, Mekhjian HS. VIPoma syndrome. In: Cohen S, Soloway RD, eds. Hormone producing tumors of the pancreas. New York: Churchil Livingstone; 1985:101.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ronnov-Jenson D. Eur J Clin Invest. 1991;21:154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Boden G, Shimoyama R. Somatostatinoma. In: Cohen S, Soloway RD, eds. Hormone-producing tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1985:85.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Reber HA. In: Howard JM, ed. Surgical Diseases of the Pancreas. Lea & Febiger: Philadelphia; 1987:865.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Krejs GJ. N Engl J Med. 1971;301:285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lowry SF. Surgery. 1981;89:309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Konomi K. J Surg Oncol. 1990;43:259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Vinik AI, Strodel WE, Eckhauser FE, et al. Endocrinol Clin N Am. 1989;18:483–493.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vinik AI, Strodel WE, Eckhauser FE, et al. Semin Oncol. 1987;14:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Galmiche JP, Chayvialle JA, Dubois PM, et al. Calcitonin-producing pancreatic somatostatinoma. Gastroenterology. 1980;78:1577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Konomi K, Chijiiwa K, Katsuta T, et al. J Surg Oncol. 1990;43(4):259–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walsh JH. Gastrointestinal hormones. In: Johnson LR, ed. Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. New York: Raven; 1987.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Boden G, Sivitz MC, Owen OE. Science. 1975;190:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Koerker DJ, Ruth W, Chideckel E. Science. 1974;184:482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bloom SR, Mortimer CH, Thorner MO, et al. Lancet. 1974;2:1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schegel W, Rapits S, Harvey RF, et al. Lancet. 1977;2:166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ormsbee HS, Koehler SL, Telford GL. Dig Dis. 1978;23:781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Reichlin S. Somatostatin. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Samols E, Weir GC, Ramseur R, et al. Metabolism. 1978;27:1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Boden G, Baile CA, McLauglin CL, et al. Am J Physiol. 1981;241:E215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schusdziarra V. Klin Wochenshr. 1983;61:681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pipeleers D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979;49:572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Axelrod L. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981;52:886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wright J. Clin Endocrinol. 1980;12:603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Swinburn BA. Clin Endocrinol. 1988;28:353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ohtsuki Y. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1989;39:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Soga J. Eur J Cancer. 1990;26:1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hagen EC. Pancreas. 1992;7:98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Maki M, Kaneko Y, Ohta Y, et al. Intern Med. 1995;34(7):661–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kent RB, van Heerden JA, Weiland LH. Ann Surg. 1981;193:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Eckhauser FE, Cheung PS, Vinik A, et al. Surgery. 1986;100:978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Erickson B, Oberg K, Skogseid B. Acta Oncol. 1989;28:373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Grama D. World J Surg. 1992;16:632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rivier J, Spress J, Thorner M, Vale W. Nature. 1982;300:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Thorner MO, Perryman RL, Cronin MJ, et al. J Clin Invest. 1982;70:965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Keogan MT, Baker ME. Gastroint Endosc Clin N Am. 1995;5(1):31–59.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pisegna JR, Doppman JL, Norton JA, et al. Dig Dis Sci. 1993;38:1318–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Benya RV, Metz DA, Hijazi YM, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88:258–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Termanini B, Gibril F, Doppman JL, et al. Radiology. 1997;202:151–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Perry RR, Vinik AI. Annu Rev Med. 1996;47:57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Modlin IM, Cornelius E, Lawton GP. Arch Surg. 1995;130(4):367–73. discussion 373–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gorman B, Reading CC. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1995;16(4):331–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sugg SL, Norton JA, Fraker DL, et al. Ann Surg. 1993;218:138–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Meko JB, Norton JA. Annu Rev Med. 1995;46:395–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cherner JA, Doppman JL, Norton JA, et al. Ann Int Med. 1986;105:841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Maton PN, Miller DL, Doppman JL, et al. Gastroenterology. 1987;92:913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Roche A, Raisonnier A, Gillon-Asavouret MC. Radiology. 1982;145:621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Zeiger MA. World J Surg. 1993;17:448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Rosch T. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:1721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rothmund M. World J Surg. 1990;14:393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Passaro E Jr, Howard TJ, Sawicki MP, et al. Arch Surg. 1998;133(1):13–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Townsend CM Jr, Thompson JC. Annu Rev Med. 1985;36:111–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sheppard BC. Surgery. 1989;106:1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Thompson NW. Henry Ford Hosp Med J. 1992;40:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Frucht H. Gastroenterology. 1990;99:1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mignon M. World J Surg. 1986;10:703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Thompson NW. World J Surg. 1993;17:455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Norton JA. Ann Surg. 1992;215:8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Imamura M, Komoto I, Ota S, et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(10):1343–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gedaly R, Daily MF, Davenport D, et al. Arch Surg. 2011;146(8):953–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Prinz RA. Surgery. 1981;90:713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Marynick SP. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Awrich AE. J Surg Oncol. 1981;17:321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Strauss GM. Ann Intern Med. 1979;90:57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Duncan LA. Ann Intern Med. 1982;97:930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Altimari AF. Surgery. 1987;102:1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Moertel CG. N Engl J Med. 1980;303:1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kvols LK. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wood SM. Gut. 1985;26:438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Loubatieres A. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1968;150:226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Porte D Jr. J Clin Invest. 1966;45:228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Groen J. Diabetes. 1958;7:272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Abramson EA. Diabetes. 1968;17:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Altszuler N. Diabetes. 1977;26:931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Knopp RH. Arch Intern Med. 1972;130:904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Brodows RG. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1974;38:159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hofeldt FD. Diabetes. 1974;23:192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Federspil G. Diabetologia. 1974;10:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ulbrecht JS. Diabetes Care. 1986;9:186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Osei K. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Broder LE. Ann Intern Med. 1973;79:108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Fiebrich HB, Siemerink EJ, Brouwers AH, et al. Oncologist. 2011;16(6):783–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Thompson W. World J Surg. 1984;8:940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Eckhauser FE. Surgery. 1986;100:978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Geelhoed GW. Surgery. 1986;100:962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Howard JM. Gastroenterology. 1983;84:1192.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pisegna JR, Slimak GG, Metz DC, et al. Gastroenterology. 1993;105:1179–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    von Schrenck T. Gastroenterology. 1988;94:1326.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Chung MH, Pisegna J, et al. Surgery. 2001;130(6):954–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Wang HS, Oh DS, Ohning GV, Pisegna JR. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58(12):1623–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Yao JC, Lombard-Bohas C, Baudin EJ. Clin Oncol. 2010;28(1):69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Yao JC, Shah MH, Ito T, et al. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:514–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations