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Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

Chapter

Abstract

Recent advances in technology over the past two decades have transformed the flexible bronchoscopy into an advanced diagnostic modality through the introduction of endobronchial ultrasound, allowing advanced assessment of the airway as well as the mediastinum and peripheral lung nodules. Advanced airway assessment techniques have opened an avenue for early endobronchial malignancy detection and surveillance. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), narrow band imaging (NBI), and high-magnification bronchovideoscope are some of the advanced bronchoscopic imaging techniques capable of detecting preinvasive lesions currently available in clinical practice. The radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) allows a more precise evaluation of newly detected preinvasive lesions within the airway. These advancements allow visualization of the endobronchial structures within the superficial mucosal layer with ability to differentiate between premalignant and malignant lesions, utilizing differential patterns of normal and pathological tissue autofluorescence or vasculature. This chapter will review the advanced bronchoscopic mucosal imaging technologies for detection of early lung cancer.

Keywords

Narrow Band Imaging Lung Cancer Mortality Central Airway Bronchial Mucosa Early Lung Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AFB

Autofluorescence bronchoscopy

AFI

Autofluorescence imaging

ASD

Angiogenic squamous dysplasia

CIS

Carcinoma in situ

EBUS

Endobronchial ultrasound

HMB

High-magnification bronchovideoscope

NBI

Narrow band imaging

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen

OCT

Optical coherence tomography

PDT

Photodynamic therapy

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

WLB

White light bronchoscopy

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Thoracic Surgery, Toronto General HospitalUniversity Health Network, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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