Simulation in Nursing
High-fidelity patient simulation is utilized in a variety of ways in the nursing profession. While simulation was slow to enter nursing education, beginning late in the 1990s, simulation use took even longer to reach the nurses already practicing in healthcare environments. Growth has steadily increased, though many nurses and nursing students still lack exposure to this valuable teaching strategy. As with most technological advances, the cost of patient simulators has decreased over the past decade. Initial use of patient simulators, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, for nursing education occurred as the result of grant programs and visionary leaders. There are still challenges to full integration, such as cost, human resources, and training needs; however, the value is appreciated and the benefits are beginning to outweigh the challenges. It is vital that administrators and simulation enthusiasts continue to promote the effective use of simulation and provide the leadership to integrate this teaching methodology into the entire curriculum. Further research needs to be undertaken to identify the impact various conceptual areas have on learning outcomes as well as how learning with simulation impacts patient care and safety.
KeywordsCurriculum integration Nursing education Nursing simulation Hospital simulation Simulated clinical experience
- 1.Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, editors. To err is human: building a safer health system. A report of the committee on quality of health care in America, Institute of Medicine. Washington: National Academy Press; 2000.Google Scholar
- 2.Page A, editor. Keeping patients safe: transforming the work environment of nurses. Board on Health Care Services. Washington: National Academies Press; 2003.Google Scholar
- 3.TeamStepps. National implementation. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). 2006. http://teamstepps.ahrq.gov/. Accessed on Oct 7, 2012.
- 4.Quality & Safety Education for Nurses. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation. 2005. http://www.qsen.org/overview.php. Accessed on Oct 25, 2012.
- 5.Benner P. From novice to expert: excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley; 1984.Google Scholar
- 6.Ellis JR, Hartley CL. Nursing in today’s world: trends, issues & management. 8th ed. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.Google Scholar
- 8.Gladwell M. Blink. New York: Little, Brown, & Company; 2005.Google Scholar
- 10.Aebersold M, Tschannen D, Stephens M, et al. Second life! A new strategy in educating nursing students. Clin Simul Nurs. 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2011.05.002. 8(9):e469–475.
- 12.Rogers L. Simulating clinical experience: exploring second life as a learning tool for nurse education. In: Same places, different spaces. Proceedings ascilite Auckland 2009. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/auckland09/procs/rogers.pdf.
- 14.Li S. The role of simulation in nursing education: a regulatory perspective. National Council of State Boards of Nursing. Presented at AACN hot issues conference, Denver; 22 April 2007.Google Scholar
- 16.Wallace P. Following the threads of an innovation: the history of standardized patients in medical education. Caduceus. 1997;13(2):1–28.Google Scholar