Simulation in Cardiothoracic Surgery

  • James I. Fann
  • Richard H. Feins
  • George L. Hicks


Surgical simulation can provide a less stressful environment for graduated training of technical skills and crisis management and a means for proficiency assessment. The cardiothoracic surgery leadership has focused efforts in simulation-based learning, including the Thoracic Surgery Visioning Conference, “Boot Camp,” and “Senior Tour.” These efforts have increased our understanding of the utility of surgical simulators and provided a venue to address barriers to adoption. Because procedures in surgery can be partitioned into components, one emphasis in cardiothoracic surgery simulation has been to provide the trainee with models that can be used for deliberate and distributed practice. Ultimately, cardiothoracic surgery training must be proficiency based; the challenge of such an approach is to develop valid methods of assessment and to establish passing standards for technical skills ability. Thus, simulation-based learning may not only provide an opportunity to identify the methods for training and remediation but also help to define the competence levels for each stage of training.


Cardiac surgery Thoracic surgery Simulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • James I. Fann
    • 1
  • Richard H. Feins
    • 2
  • George L. Hicks
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Division of Thoracic SurgeryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

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