Chemical Behavior of Phthalates Under Abiotic Conditions in Landfills

  • Jingyu Huang
  • Philip N. NkrumahEmail author
  • Yi Li
  • Gloria Appiah-Sefah
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 224)


Phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are diesters of phthalic anhydride. They are synthesized from an esterification reaction between phthalic anhydride and oxo alcohols (ECOBILAN 2001). Phthalates are usually used as plasticizers to enhance the flexibility of materials and their technical properties. Mersiowsky et al. (2001) reported that the phthalates serve as plasticizers for approximately 93 % of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer that is produced. In addition, they are also used in cosmetics, in fragrances, as pesticide carriers, in insect repellants, and are found in vinyl floorings, wall coverings, cables, tubing, hoses, upholstery, films, paints, adhesives, and inks, among other products (ECPI 1994; Schierow and Lee 2008). The annual worldwide production of PAEs exceeds five million tons (Mackintosh et al. 2006).


Phthalic Acid Phthalate Ester Phthalic Anhydride Catalytic Ozonation Butyl Benzyl Phthalate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are extremely grateful to Dr. Dave Whitacre, RECT Editor, for his excellent comments and editing of the manuscript. The authors appreciate the input made by Subhankar Chatterjee and other anonymous reviewers. We would also like to thank Jennifer Abena Kwofie for her contribution.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingyu Huang
    • 1
  • Philip N. Nkrumah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yi Li
    • 1
  • Gloria Appiah-Sefah
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, College of EnvironmentHohai UniversityNanjingChina

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