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Microbial Interactions in the Arsenic Cycle: Adoptive Strategies and Applications in Environmental Management

  • Umesh Praveen Dhuldhaj
  • Ishwar Chandra Yadav
  • Surendra Singh
  • Naveen Kumar SharmaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 224)

Abstract

The term “arsenic” is derived from the Persian word “zarnikh” meaning “yellow orpiment” (As2S3) (Rensing and Rosen 2009). Arsenic (As) is a metalloid (Table 1) and has a single naturally occurring isotope As75 (Rensing and Rosen 2009). It occurs in four primary oxidation states, viz., arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], elemental arsenic [As(0)], and arsenide [As(−III)]. Arsenic compounds have no known biological roles. Formerly, As found applications in medicine in ancient civilizations (Datta et al. 1979). It has also been used in the cosmetic and agriculture industries (insecticide, desiccant, rodenticide, and herbicide). However, in recent times, the element has acquired notoriety for its toxicity to humans. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has included arsenic in the list of “20 most hazardous substances” (Rensing and Rosen 2009).

Keywords

Arsenic Species Arsenic Toxicity Arsenate Reductase Trimethylarsine Oxide arsB Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Praveen Dhuldhaj
    • 1
  • Ishwar Chandra Yadav
    • 1
  • Surendra Singh
    • 1
  • Naveen Kumar Sharma
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.CAS in BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPost Graduate CollegeGhazipurIndia

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