Renewable Generation, Integration of



The integration of renewable generation consists of all of the changes in power system operations that are required in order to allow renewable generation sources to play a significant role in the electricity system. The impacts are mostly due to variable generation (VG), like wind and solar power. Historically these technologies have been labeled as intermittent generation, but recent trends prefer the label variable generation. Variable generators have a maximum available generation limit that changes with time (variability) and this limit is not known with perfect accuracy (uncertainty). This uncertainty and variability is in addition to that of the existing system and can therefore create additional challenges for grid operators to maintain their current levels of reliability.


Wind Turbine Wind Power Electricity System Demand Response Unit Commitment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Ancillary services

All of the actions necessary for supporting the transmission of power from the generator to the consumer and ensuring reliable system operations. Some examples of these services include: voltage and frequency control, generation scheduling, load following, and system protection.

Balancing area

An area in which electricity supply and demand are locally matched and over which a balancing authority maintains system frequency and provides operating reserve.

Independent system operator

The organization that is charged with controlling the operation of the electrical power transmission system in a certain geographic area.

Operating reserve

Extra generating capacity available at short notice to replace scheduled capacity that is currently unavailable due to some sort of system disruption.

Unit commitment and economic dispatch

The process by which generators are scheduled by the grid operator in order to meet expected demand at all timeframes. Commitment refers to deciding which generators will be turned on far in advance of the time period under consideration. Dispatch refers to the decision of how much power each generator will supply during a timeframe that is closer to realization than the commitment period.

Variable generation

Generation from units that cannot be well controlled and thus are not perfectly dispatchable. This term is often applied to generation from weather-driven units, such as wind and solar.


Primary Literature

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transmission and Grid Integration GroupNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoldenUSA
  2. 2.Energy Forecasting and Modeling GroupNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoldenUSA

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