Renewable Generation, Integration of
The integration of renewable generation consists of all of the changes in power system operations that are required in order to allow renewable generation sources to play a significant role in the electricity system. The impacts are mostly due to variable generation (VG), like wind and solar power. Historically these technologies have been labeled as intermittent generation, but recent trends prefer the label variable generation. Variable generators have a maximum available generation limit that changes with time (variability) and this limit is not known with perfect accuracy (uncertainty). This uncertainty and variability is in addition to that of the existing system and can therefore create additional challenges for grid operators to maintain their current levels of reliability.
KeywordsBiomass Combustion Fatigue Europe Dispatch
- Ancillary services
All of the actions necessary for supporting the transmission of power from the generator to the consumer and ensuring reliable system operations. Some examples of these services include: voltage and frequency control, generation scheduling, load following, and system protection.
- Balancing area
An area in which electricity supply and demand are locally matched and over which a balancing authority maintains system frequency and provides operating reserve.
- Independent system operator
The organization that is charged with controlling the operation of the electrical power transmission system in a certain geographic area.
- Operating reserve
Extra generating capacity available at short notice to replace scheduled capacity that is currently unavailable due to some sort of system disruption.
- Unit commitment and economic dispatch
The process by which generators are scheduled by the grid operator in order to meet expected demand at all timeframes. Commitment refers to deciding which generators will be turned on far in advance of the time period under consideration. Dispatch refers to the decision of how much power each generator will supply during a timeframe that is closer to realization than the commitment period.
- Variable generation
Generation from units that cannot be well controlled and thus are not perfectly dispatchable. This term is often applied to generation from weather-driven units, such as wind and solar.
- 1.NERC (2009) Accommodating high levels of variable generation. North American Electric Reliability Corporation. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation is the publisher. The report may be found at: http://www.nerc.com/files/IVGTF_Report_041609.pdf
- 2.IEA (2010) World energy outlook 2010. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
- 3.EIA (2011) Electric power annual 2009. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 5.GE (2010) Western wind and solar integration study. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, 536ppGoogle Scholar
- 6.Milligan M et al (2010) Operating reserves and wind power integration: an international comparison. The 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems, Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- 11.Sims R et al (2007) Energy supply. In: Metz B, Davidson O, Bosch P, Dave R, Meyer L (eds) Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 12.Chen Z (2005) Issues of connecting wind farms into power systems. In: IEEE/PES transmission and distribution conference and exhibition: Asia and Pacific, DalianGoogle Scholar
- 13.GE (2005) The effects of integrating wind power on transmission system planning, reliability, and operations: phase 2: system performance evaluation. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
- 16.Smith JC et al (2010) Impact of variable renewable energy on US electricity markets. In: IEEE power and energy society general meeting, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
- 17.Z-Global (2010) Study of the economic impact of Tres Amigas. Western Electricity Coordinating Council – Transmission Expansion Planning Committee. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council is the publisher. The report may be found at: http://www.wecc.biz/committees/BOD/TEPPC/TAS/MWG/Shared%20Documents/Tres%20Amigas%20Modeling/Z-Global%20Analysis.pdf
- 18.DESERTEC (2007) Clean power from deserts – the DESERTEC concept for energy, water and climate security. Protext, BonnGoogle Scholar
- 21.Nourai A (2002) Large-scale electricity storage technologies for energy management. In: IEEE power engineering society summer meeting, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
Books and Reviews
- Ackermann T (ed) (2005) Wind power in power systems. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Anaya-Lara O, Jenkins N, Ekanayake J, Cartwright P, Hughes M (2009) Wind energy generation: modeling and control. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Freris L, Infield D (2008) Renewable energy in power systems. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Miller R, Malinowski J (1993) Power system operation. McGraw Hill, BostonGoogle Scholar