General Aspects of Cooperation that Potentiate but do not Determine Concrete Cooperation

  • Carl Ratner
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)


This chapter enumerates the general aspects of cooperation that are rooted in human nature. These include (1) the host of related competencies that must be concretely developed in order to actualize cooperation; (2) how cooperation develops, or the processes that are necessary to develop cooperation, (3) what kind of social-psychological relationship cooperation is, (4) how it relates to individuality, fulfillment, freedom, civilization, and humanness; (5) the social and psychological benefits that result from cooperation—i.e., how cooperation stimulates advanced human psychology such as symbolic communication and thinking; (6) how human nature generates cooperation—i.e., how a distinctive kind of biology is necessary to generate cooperation; (7) how this distinctive biology does not exist in animals, which is why cooperation is unique to humans, at least advanced forms of it are; (8) a comparison of human and animal cooperation; (9) how cooperation is a social relation that depends upon social processes; (10) how the actual practice of cooperation is potentiated by human nature, but is not determined or impelled by human nature. The actual practice depends upon developing concrete forms of cooperation and cultural conditions that facilitate it. Consequently, psychological theories that explain actual cooperation in terms of biological processes or abstract competencies place too much weight on them and do not incorporate concrete, cultural-historical factors that are necessary for cooperative praxis.


Human Nature Cooperative Behavior Collaborative Activity Cooperative Communication Social Cooperation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Cultural Research and EducationTrinidadUSA

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