Advertisement

Electrochemical Supercapacitors and Hybrid Systems

  • Katsuhiko Naoi
Chapter

Abstract

An electrochemical capacitor or electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), also known as supercapacitor, pseudocapacitor, electrochemical double layer capacitor, or ultracapacitor is an energy storage device with high power and relatively high energy density. Compared to conventional electrolytic capacitors the energy density is typically 3 orders of magnitude greater. In comparison with conventional batteries or fuel cells, EDLCs show lower energy density but have a much higher power density. EDLCs have a variety of commercial applications, notably in energy-smoothing and momentary-load devices. They have applications as energy-storage devices used in vehicles, and applications like wind power solar energy systems where extremely fast charging required.

Keywords

High Energy Density Negative Electrode High Power Density Energy Storage Device Electrochemical Capacitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

Activated carbon

Also called activated charcoal or activated coal is a form of carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to have a very large surface area available for EDLC, adsorption, or chemical reactions.

Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), not to be confused with carbon fiber, are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making EDLC performances excellent in power capability.

Electrochemical capacitor (EDLC)

An electric double-layer capacitor, also known as supercapacitor, pseudocapacitor, electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), supercapacitor or ultracapacitor is an electrochemical capacitor with relatively high energy density. Compared to conventional capacitors the energy density is typically on the order of thousands of times greater than an electrolytic capacitor. In comparison with conventional batteries or fuel cells, EDLCs have lower energy density but a much higher power density.

Energy density

or Specific energy is defined as the energy per unit mass or volume.

Hybrid (asymmetric) capacitor

A hybrid capacitor consists of a battery-like (faradic) electrode and a capacitor-like (non-faradic) electrode, producing higher working voltage and capacitance. With these systems, one can certainly achieve twice or triple enhancements in energy density compared to the conventional EDLCs.

Lithium-ion capacitor

A Lithium-Ion Capacitor (LIC) is a hybrid type of capacitor. Activated carbon is used as cathode. The anode of the LIC consists of carbon material which is pre-doped with lithium ion. This pre-doping process lowers the potential of the anode and allows a high output voltage and higher energy density.

Nanohybrid capacitor

A new lithium-ion–based hybrid capacitor using the lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) negative intercalation electrode that can operate at unusually high current densities. The high-rate Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode has a unique nano-structure consisting of extremely small nano-crystalline Li4Ti5O12 nucleated and grafted onto carbon nano-fiber anchors (nc-Li4Ti5O12/CNF).

Power density

Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Amatucci GG, Badway F, Du. Pasquier A, Zheng T (1999) In: Abstract of 196th meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, p 122Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amatucci GG, Badway F, Pasquier ADu, Zheng T (2001) An asymmetric hybrid nonaqueous energy storage cell. J Electrochem Soc 148:A930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Azaïs P, Tetrais F, Caumont O, Depond JD, Lejosne J (2009) Ageing study of advanced carbon/carbon ultracapacitor cells working in various organic electrolytes. In: Abstract of ISEE’Cap 09, p 19Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bai Y, Wang F, Wu F, Wu C, Bao L (2008) Influence of composite LiCl–KCl molten salt on microstructure and electrochemical performance of spinel Li4Ti5O12. Electrochim Acta 54:322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baldsing WG, Puffy NW, Newnham RH, Pandolfo AG (2007) High-energy asymmetric nickel-carbon supercapacitors. In: Proceedings advanced automotive battery and ultracapacitor conference, Long BeachGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burke A (2000) Ultracapacitors: why, how, and where is the technology. J Power Sources 91:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burke A (2007) R&D considerations for the performance and application of electrochemical capacitors. Electrochim Acta 53:1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen CH, Vaughey JT, Jansen AN, Dees DW, Kahaian AJ, Goacher T, Thackeray MM (2001) Studies of Mg-substituted Li4–xMgxTi5O12 spinel electrodes (0x1) for lithium batteries. J Electrochem Soc 148:A102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hao Y, Lai Q, Xu Z, Liu X, Ji X (2005) Synthesis by TEA sol–gel method and electrochemical properties of Li4Ti5O12 anode material for lithium-ion battery. Solid State Ionics 176:1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hatozaki O (2008) Lithium ion capacitor: electrode materials and cell performance. In: Proceedings advanced capacitor world summit 2008, San Diego (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang J, Jiang Z (2008) The preparation and characterization of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nano-tubes for lithium ion battery. Electrochim Acta 53:7756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang S, Wen Z, Zhu X, Gu Z (2004) Preparation and electrochemical performance of Ag doped Li4Ti5O12. Electrochem Commun 6:1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jansen AN, Kahaian AJ, Kepler KD, Nelson PA, Amine K, Dees DW, Vissers DR (1999) High-rate nano-crystalline Li4Ti5O12 attached on carbon nano-fibers for hybrid supercapacitors. J Power Sources 81–82:902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kazaryan SA, Kharsov GG, Litvinrnko SV, Kogan VI (2007) Self-discharge related to iron ions and its effect on the parameters of HES PbO2|H2SO4|C Systems. J Electrochem Soc 154:A751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim J, Cho J (2007) Spinel Li4Ti5O12 nanowires for high-rate Li-Ion intercalation electrode. Electrochem Solid State Lett 10:A81MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koetz R, Carlen M (2000) Principles and applications of electrochemical capacitors. Electrochim Acta 45:2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laforgue A, Simon P, Fauvarque JF, Mastrangostino M, Soavi F, Sarrau JF, Lailler P, Conte M, Rossi E, Saguatti S (2003) Activated carbon/conducting polymer hybrid supercapacitors. J Electrochem Soc 150:A645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Machida K, Suematsu S, Ishimoto S, Tamamitsu K (2008) High-voltage asymmetric electrochemical capacitor based on polyfluorene nanocomposite and activated carbon. J Electrochem Soc 155:A970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naoi K, Ishimoto S, Ogihara N, Nakagawa Y, Hatta S (2009) Encapsulation of nanodot ruthenium oxide into KB for electrochemical capacitors. J Electrochem Soc 156:A52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naoi K, Simon P (2008) New materials and new configurations for advanced electrochemical capacitors. Interface 17:34Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nikkei Electronics (2008) LIC prevails EDLCs?! 991:77Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ohzuku T, Ueda A, Yamamoto N (1995) Zero-strain insertion material of Li[Li1/3Ti5/3]O4 for rechargeable lithium cells. J Electrochem Soc 142:1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pandolfo AG, Hollenkamp AF (2006) Carbon properties and their role in supercapacitors. J Power Sources 157:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Plitz I, Dupasquier A, Badway F, Gural J, Pereira N, Gmitter A, Amatucci GG (2006) Nanohybrid capacitor: The next generation electrochemical capacitors. Appl Phys A 82:615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scharner S, Weppner W, Schmind-Beurmann P (1999) Evidence of two-phase formation upon lithium insertion into the Li1.33Ti1.67O4 spinel. J Electrochem Soc 146:857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shen CM, Zhang XG, Zhou YK, Li HL (2002) Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline Li4Ti5O12 by sol–gel method. Mater Chem Phys 78:437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shu J (2008) Study of the interface between Li4Ti5O12 electrodes and standard electrolyte solutions in 0.0–5.0 V. Electrochem Solid State Lett 11:A238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simon P, Gogotsi Y (2008) Materials for electrochemical capacitors. Nat Mater 7:845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takai S, Kamata M, Fujiine S, Yoneda K, Kanda K, Esaka T (1999) Diffusion coefficient measurement of lithium ion in sintered Li1.33Ti1.67O4 by means of neutron radiography. Solid State Ionics 123:165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thackeray MM (1995) Structural considerations of layered and spinel lithiated oxides for lithium ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 142:2558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoshino A, Tsubata T, Shimoyamada M, Satake H, Okano Y, Mori S, Yata S (2004) Development of a lithium-type advanced energy storage device. J Electrochem Soc 151:A2180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu H, Zhang X, Jalbout AF, Yan X, Pan X, Xie H, Wang R (2008) High-rate characteristics of novel anode Li4Ti5O12/polyacene materials for Li-ion secondary batteries. Electrochim Acta 53:4200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhou JH, Sui ZJ, Li P, Chen D, Dai YC, Yuan WK (2006) Structural characterization of carbon nanofibers formed from different carbon-containing gases. Carbon 44:3255CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Symbiotic Science and TechnologyTokyo University of Agriculture & TechnologyKoganeiJapan

Personalised recommendations