Species Diversity Within and Among Ecosystems
Species diversity is a function of species richness, the number of species in a given locality and species evenness, the degree to which the relative abundances of species are similar [1, 2]. While this notion may be easy to conceptualize, it has proven difficult, and at time contentious, to quantify [1, 2]. Commonly used methods include constructing mathematical indices known as diversity indexes (the Shannon, Simpson, and Margalef indexes being the most widely used) or comparing observed patterns of species abundance to theoretical models . There is no single best metric and often commonly used ones are chosen because they are familiar and not necessarily because they are the most appropriate . The scale of assessment may range from within a single site or habitat (known as α diversity) to the difference between two or more sites (β diversity) , which can then be combined to give γ diversity – the diversity of the landscape. Early research tended to be concentrated on largely α diversity, but there has been a marked increase in studies investigating β and γ diversity during the last decade .
KeywordsBiomass Geochemistry Indonesia Peru Congo
The variability among living organisms from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are part biodiversity includes diversity within species between species and of ecosystems.
A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit.
- Ecosystem service
The benefits people obtain from ecosystems these include provisioning services such as food and water regulating services such as flood and disease control cultural services such as recreation or spiritual benefits and supporting services such as nutrient cycling.
A geographic entity within a species that is distinguished either ecologically or genetically.
- Species (biological species concept)
Interbreeding natural groups whose members are unable to successfully reproduce with members of other such groups.
- 1.Magurran AE, Gill BJ (2011) Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- 8.Mayden RL (1997) A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem. In: Claridge MF et al (eds) Species: the units of biodiversity. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 381–424Google Scholar
- 9.Mallet J (2006) Species concepts. In: Fox CW, Wolf JB (eds) Evolutionary genetics: concepts and case studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp 367–373Google Scholar
- 10.Mace GM, Masundire H, Baillie JEM (2005) Biodiversity. In: Hassan R, Sholes R, Ash N (eds) Millennium ecosystem assessment, 2005 Current state and trends: findings of the condition and trends working group Ecosystems and human well-being, vol 1, chapter 4. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 11.Mayr E (1963) Animal species and evolution. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
- 12.Hay J (2000) Genes, categories and species: the evolutionary and cognitive causes of the species problem. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- 17.Erwin TL (1982) Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other Arthropod species. Coleopt Bull 36:74–75Google Scholar
- 18.Raven PH (1983) The challenge of tropical biology. Bull Entomol Soc Am 29(1):4–12Google Scholar
- 20.Stork NE, Gaston KJ (1990) Counting new species one by one. New Sci 1729:43–47Google Scholar
- 24.IUCN (2011) IUCN red list of threatened species, version 2011.2: Table 1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 14 Nov 2011
- 25.May RM (2007) Unanswered questions and why they matter. In: May RN, McLean AR (eds) Theoretical ecology: principles and applications, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- 33.Gaston KJ, Spicer JI (1998) Biodiversity: an introduction. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- 34.Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2004) 2004 IUCN red list of threatened species. A global species assessment. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
- 38.Baillie JEM, Griffiths J, Turvey ST et al (2010) Evolution lost: status and trends of the world’s vertebrates. Zoological Society of London, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- 39.Ponder W, Lunney D (1999) The other 99%: the conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Chipping NortonGoogle Scholar
- 40.Collen B, Ram M, Dewhurst N et al (2009) Broadening the coverage of biodiversity assessments. In: Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) Wildlife in a changing world: an analysis of the 2008 review of The IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, pp 67–77Google Scholar
- 44.BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the World 2004. (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html)
- 47.Christensen LB (2006) Marine mammal populations: reconstruction historical abundances at the global scale. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- 48.BirdLife International (2008) State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
- 54.Thurstan RH, Brockington S, Roberts CM (2010) The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheries. Nat Commun 1. doi:10.1038/ncomms1013Google Scholar
- 55.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2010) The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- 56.Le Quesne T, Matthews JH, Von der Heyden C et al (2010) Flowing forward: freshwater ecosystem adaption to climate change in water resources management and biodiversity conservation. World Bank and WWFGoogle Scholar
- 57.Reading CJ, Luiselli LM, Akani GC et al (2010) Are snake populations in widespread decline? Biol Lett. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0373 Google Scholar
- 61.Daily GC, Alexander S, Ehrlich PR (1997) Ecosystem services: benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems. Issues Ecol 2:1–16Google Scholar
- 67.Diaz S, Tilman D, Fargione (2005) Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. In: Hassan R, Sholes R, Ash N (eds) Millennium ecosystem assessment, 2005 current state and trends: findings of the condition and trends working group ecosystems and human well-being, vol 1, chapter 11. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 73.Harding S, Clark E, Gardiner-Smith B et al (2010) GLOBE action plan for coral reefs. GLOBE International, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 83.Hamberg SE, Martin AS (2007) Conservation action planning. Innovations in conservation series. Parks in Peril Programme. The Nature Conservancy, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
- 84.Convention on Biological Diversity (2000) Decision V/6. Ecosystem approach. In: Proceedings of the fifth conference of the parties, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- 85.Saunders CD (2003) The emerging field of conservation psychology. Human Ecol Forum 10(2):137–149Google Scholar
- 87.United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007) World population prospects: 2006 revision, highlights. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.202Google Scholar
- 90.Baillie JEM, Raffaelli D, Sillero-Zubiri C (in prep) Levels of approach. In: Macdonald D (ed) Key topics in conservation biology 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar