Species Diversity Within and Among Ecosystems

Chapter

Abstract

Species diversity is a function of species richness, the number of species in a given locality and species evenness, the degree to which the relative abundances of species are similar [1, 2]. While this notion may be easy to conceptualize, it has proven difficult, and at time contentious, to quantify [1, 2]. Commonly used methods include constructing mathematical indices known as diversity indexes (the Shannon, Simpson, and Margalef indexes being the most widely used) or comparing observed patterns of species abundance to theoretical models [3]. There is no single best metric and often commonly used ones are chosen because they are familiar and not necessarily because they are the most appropriate [1]. The scale of assessment may range from within a single site or habitat (known as α diversity) to the difference between two or more sites (β diversity) [4], which can then be combined to give γ diversity – the diversity of the landscape. Early research tended to be concentrated on largely α diversity, but there has been a marked increase in studies investigating β and γ diversity during the last decade [1].

Keywords

Biomass Geochemistry Indonesia Peru Congo 

Glossary

Biodiversity

The variability among living organisms from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are part biodiversity includes diversity within species between species and of ecosystems.

Ecosystem

A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit.

Ecosystem service

The benefits people obtain from ecosystems these include provisioning services such as food and water regulating services such as flood and disease control cultural services such as recreation or spiritual benefits and supporting services such as nutrient cycling.

Population

A geographic entity within a species that is distinguished either ecologically or genetically.

Species (biological species concept)

Interbreeding natural groups whose members are unable to successfully reproduce with members of other such groups.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Magurran AE, Gill BJ (2011) Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hurlbert S (1971) The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52:577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamilton AJ (2004) Species diversity or biodiversity? J Environ Manage 75:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Whittaker RH (1960) Vegetation of the Siskiyou mountains, Oregon and California. Ecol Monogr 30:279–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mace GM (2004) The role of taxonomy in species conservation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:711–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2003) Preserving the tree of life. Science 300:1707–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hey J (2001) The mind of the species problem. Trends Ecol Evol 16:326–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mayden RL (1997) A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem. In: Claridge MF et al (eds) Species: the units of biodiversity. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 381–424Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mallet J (2006) Species concepts. In: Fox CW, Wolf JB (eds) Evolutionary genetics: concepts and case studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp 367–373Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mace GM, Masundire H, Baillie JEM (2005) Biodiversity. In: Hassan R, Sholes R, Ash N (eds) Millennium ecosystem assessment, 2005 Current state and trends: findings of the condition and trends working group Ecosystems and human well-being, vol 1, chapter 4. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mayr E (1963) Animal species and evolution. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hay J (2000) Genes, categories and species: the evolutionary and cognitive causes of the species problem. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Isaac NJB, Mallett J, Mace GM (2004) Taxonomic inflation: its influence on macroecology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 19(9):464–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ward BB (2002) How many species of prokaryotes are there? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:10234–10236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nee S (2003) Unveiling prokaryotic diversity. Trends Ecol Evol 18(2):62–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mora C, Tittensor DP, Ald S, Simpson AGG, Worm B (2011) How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biol 9(8):e1001127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Erwin TL (1982) Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other Arthropod species. Coleopt Bull 36:74–75Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raven PH (1983) The challenge of tropical biology. Bull Entomol Soc Am 29(1):4–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stork NE (1988) Insect diversity: facts, fiction and speculation. Biol J Linn Soc 35:321–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stork NE, Gaston KJ (1990) Counting new species one by one. New Sci 1729:43–47Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hodkinson ID, Casson D (1991) A lesser predilection for bugs: Hemiptera (Insecta) diversity in tropical rain forests. Biol J Linn Soc 73:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hodkinson ID (1992) Global insect diversity revisited. J Trop Ecol 8:505–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novotny V, Basset Y, Miller SE et al (2002) Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest. Nature 419:841–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    IUCN (2011) IUCN red list of threatened species, version 2011.2: Table 1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 14 Nov 2011
  25. 25.
    May RM (2007) Unanswered questions and why they matter. In: May RN, McLean AR (eds) Theoretical ecology: principles and applications, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rosenzwieg ML (1995) Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prendergast JR, Quinn RM, Lawton JH et al (1993) Rare species, the coincidence of diversity hotspots and conservation strategies. Nature 356:335–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fischer AG (1960) Latitudinal variations in organic diversity. Evolution 14:64–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hillebrand H (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Am Nat 163:192–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reid WV (1998) Biodiversity hotspots. Trends Ecol Evol 13:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Snelgrove PVR (1999) Getting to the bottom of marine biodiversity: sedimentary habitats – ocean bottoms are the most widespread habitat on Earth and support high biodiversity and ecosystem services. BioScience 49:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crame JA (2002) Evolution of taxonomic diversity gradients in the marine realm: a comparison of Late Jurassic and recent bivalve faunas. Paleobiology 28:184–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gaston KJ, Spicer JI (1998) Biodiversity: an introduction. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2004) 2004 IUCN red list of threatened species. A global species assessment. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier GC et al (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Faith DP (1992) Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biol Conserv 61:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Williams PH, Humphries CJ, Gaston KJ (1994) Centres of seed-plant diversity: the family way. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 256:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baillie JEM, Griffiths J, Turvey ST et al (2010) Evolution lost: status and trends of the world’s vertebrates. Zoological Society of London, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ponder W, Lunney D (1999) The other 99%: the conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Chipping NortonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Collen B, Ram M, Dewhurst N et al (2009) Broadening the coverage of biodiversity assessments. In: Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) Wildlife in a changing world: an analysis of the 2008 review of The IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, pp 67–77Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rodrigues ASL, Pilgrim JD, Lamoreux JF et al (2005) The value of the IUCN red list for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 21:71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schipper J, Chanson JS, Chiozza F et al (2008) The status of the world’s land and marine mammals: diversity, threat and knowledge. Science 10(322):225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Butchart SHM et al (2004) Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds. PLoS Biol 2:2294–2304. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the World 2004. (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html)
  45. 45.
    Stuart SN et al (2004) Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306:1783–1786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Collen B, Loh J, McRae L et al (2009) Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the living planet index. Conserv Biol 23:317–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Christensen LB (2006) Marine mammal populations: reconstruction historical abundances at the global scale. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    BirdLife International (2008) State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bielby J, Cooper N, Cunningham AA et al (2008) Predicting declines in the world’s frogs. Conserv Lett 1:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wake DB, Vredenburg VT (2008) Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:11466–11473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Blaustein AR, Wake DB (1990) Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends Ecol Evol 5:203–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2003) Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Divers Distrib 9(2):141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jackson J, Kirby MX, Berger WH et al (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thurstan RH, Brockington S, Roberts CM (2010) The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheries. Nat Commun 1. doi:10.1038/ncomms1013Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2010) The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Le Quesne T, Matthews JH, Von der Heyden C et al (2010) Flowing forward: freshwater ecosystem adaption to climate change in water resources management and biodiversity conservation. World Bank and WWFGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reading CJ, Luiselli LM, Akani GC et al (2010) Are snake populations in widespread decline? Biol Lett. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0373 Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Whitfield Gibbon J, Scott DE, Ryan TJ et al (2000) The global decline of reptiles, Déjà vu amphibians. Bioscience 50(8):653–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Naeem S, Wright JP (2003) Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecol Lett 6:567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP et al (1994) Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems. Nature 368:734–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Daily GC, Alexander S, Ehrlich PR (1997) Ecosystem services: benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems. Issues Ecol 2:1–16Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chapin FS, Zavaletta ES, Eviner VT et al (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405:234–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Luck GW, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (2003) Population diversity and ecosystem services. Trends Ecol Evol 18:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hooper DU et al (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75:3–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kremen C (2005) Managing ecosystem services: what do we need to know about their ecology? Ecol Lett 8:468–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tilman D (1996) Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology 77:350–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Diaz S, Tilman D, Fargione (2005) Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. In: Hassan R, Sholes R, Ash N (eds) Millennium ecosystem assessment, 2005 current state and trends: findings of the condition and trends working group ecosystems and human well-being, vol 1, chapter 11. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grime JP (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the debate deepens. Science 277:1260–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dobson A, Lodge D, Alder J et al (2006) Habitat loss, trophic collapse and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 87(8):1915–1924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. OIKOS 69:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schindler DE, Hilborn R, Chasco B et al (2010) Population diversity and the portfolio effect in an exploited species. Nature 465:609–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hoffman M, Hilton-Taylor C, Angulo A et al (2010) The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science 330:1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Harding S, Clark E, Gardiner-Smith B et al (2010) GLOBE action plan for coral reefs. GLOBE International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hughes JB, Daily GW, Ehrlich PR (1997) Population diversity; its extent and extinction. Science 278:689–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Valéry L, Fritz H, Lefueve J-C, Simberloff D (2009) Ecosystem-level consequences of invasion by native species as a way to investigate relationships between evenness and ecosystem function. Biol Invasions 11(3):609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE et al (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stork NE (2009) Re-assessing current extinction rates. Biodivers Conserv 19(2):357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    McMichael AJ, Butler CD, Folke C (2003) New visions for addressing sustainability. Science 302:1919–1920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA et al (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Palmer M, Bernhardt E, Chornesky E et al (2004) Ecology for a crowded planet. Science 304:1251–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Issac NJB, Turvey ST, Collen B et al (2007) Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2(3):e296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hamberg SE, Martin AS (2007) Conservation action planning. Innovations in conservation series. Parks in Peril Programme. The Nature Conservancy, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Convention on Biological Diversity (2000) Decision V/6. Ecosystem approach. In: Proceedings of the fifth conference of the parties, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Saunders CD (2003) The emerging field of conservation psychology. Human Ecol Forum 10(2):137–149Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Barnosky AD, Matzke N, Tomiya S et al (2011) Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471:51–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007) World population prospects: 2006 revision, highlights. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.202Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Anderson S (1994) Area and endemism. Q Rev Biol 69:451–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brown JH, Whitman TG, Ernest SKM, Gehring CA (2001) Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems: long term experiments. Science 293:643–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baillie JEM, Raffaelli D, Sillero-Zubiri C (in prep) Levels of approach. In: Macdonald D (ed) Key topics in conservation biology 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoological Society of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations