Advertisement

Sediment–Water Interfaces, Chemical Flux at

  • Louis J. ThibodeauxEmail author
  • Joseph Germano
Chapter
  • 1k Downloads

Abstract

Numerous individual transport processes which mobilize chemicals on either side of the interface have been studied. However, a consistent theoretical framework connecting the processes across the interface that correctly quantifies the overall flux remains elusive. This occurs because two fundamentally different individual flux relationships are needed to represent the two very different transport mechanisms needed for quantifying the numerous chemical, biological, and physical processes ongoing at this unique locale. The two basic types of transport processes are the chemical potential driven and the media advection driven. Several theoretical modeling approaches exist for combining these, but all have problematic conceptual features, which will be reviewed. By generalizing flux continuity across the interface, which is the fundamental basis for arriving at the well-known and accepted two-resistance theory, the “interface compartment model” is presented and offered as a unifying theory describing advection-driven and potential-driven transport across the sediment–water interface.

Keywords

Water Interface Transport Coefficient Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Flux Equation Benthic Boundary Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

Benthic boundary layer

A slow moving water layer above the sediment.

Bioturbation transport

A chemical mobility process driven by the presence of macrofauna and macroflora residing near the interface.

Chemical flux

The basic term that quantifies chemical mobility across an interface with units of mass per area per time (kg/m2/s)

Chemical mobility

A general term used to denote the idea that chemicals do move from place to place.

Interface

A real or imaginary plane which separates water from sediment.

Mass transfer rate

The chemical flux times the area perpendicular to its direction of movement (kg/s).

Sediment surface layers

A series of distinctive mud layers occupying thickness of several centimeters depth.

Transport model

One of several concepts for describing a chemical mobility process, and the associated formula or algorithm needed to describe it mathematically (a.k.a., the flux expression).

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Lewis WK, Whitman WG (1924) Principles of gas absorption. Indust Eng Chem 16:1215–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rhoads DC, Germano JD (1982) Characterization of benthic processes using sediment profile imaging: An efficient method of remote ecological monitoring of the seafloor (REMOTS System). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rhoads DC, Germano JD (1986) Interpreting long-term changes in benthic community structure: a new protocol. Hydrobiologia 142:291–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Santschi P, Hohener P, Benoit G, Brink MB (1990) Chemical processes at the sediment-water interface. Mar Chem 30:269–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duursma EK, Smies M (1982) Sediments and transfer at and in the bottom interfacial layer. In: Kullenberg G (ed) Pollutant transfer and transport in the sea, vol II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 101–137Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krantzberg G (1985) The influence of bioturbation on physical, chemical and biological parameters in aquatic environment – a review. Environ Pollut (Ser A) 39:99–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DiToro DM (2001) Sediment flux modeling. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kullenberg G (ed) (1976) Pollutant transfer and transport in the Sea-II. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boudreau BP, Jorgensen BB (eds) (2001) The benthic boundary layer. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCave IN (ed) (1976) The benthic boundary layer. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Windom HL, Duce RA (1976) Marine pollutant transport. Lexington, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tenore KR, Coull BC (eds) (1980) Marine benthic dynamics. University of South Carolina Press, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fanning KA, Manheim FT (eds) (1982) The dynamic environment of the ocean floor. Lexington Books, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thibodeaux LJ (1996) Environmental chemodynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lerman A (1979) Geochemical processes water and sediment environments. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boudreau BP (1997) Diagenetic models and their implementation. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schink DR, Guinasso NL Jr (1975) Modeling the influence of bioturbation and other processes of CaCO3 dissolution at the sea floor. In: Andersen NR, Malahoff A (eds) The fate of fossil fuel CO2 in the oceans. Plenum, New York, pp 375–399Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berner RA (1980) Early diagenesis. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Matisoff G, Reible DD (2010) Bioturbation and other sorbed-phase transport processes in surface soils and sediment. In: Thibodeaux LJ, Mackay D (eds) Handbook of chemical mass transport in the environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton (Chap 13)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Wolfe JR, Dekker TJ (2010) Advective porewater flux and chemical transport in bed-sediment. In: Thibodeaux LJ, Mackay D (eds) Handbook of chemical mass transport in the environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton (Chap 11)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh VP, Reible DD, Thibodeaux LJ (1988) Mathematical modeling of fine sediment transport. Hydrol J IAH 11:1–3Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lick W (2009) Sediment and contaminant transport in surface waters. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lohmann R, Dachs J (2010) Deposition of dissolved and particle-bound chemicals from surface ocean. In: Thibodeaux LJ, Mackay D (eds) Handbook of chemical mass transport in the environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton (Chap 17)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang CT (2003) Sediment transport. Krieger, MalabarGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    DePinto JV, McCulloch RD, Redder TM, Wolfe JR, Dekker TJ (2010) Deposition and resuspension of particles and associated chemical transport across the sediment-water interface. In: Thibodeaux LJ, Mackay D (eds) Handbook of chemical mass transport in the environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton (Chap 10)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reible DD, Valsaraj KT, Thibodeaux LJ (1991) Chemodynamic models for transport of contaminants from sediment beds. In: Hutzinger O (ed) The handbook of environmental chemistry, part F, vol 2. Springer, Berlin, pp 186–228Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Reible DD, Valsaraj KT (2002) Non-particle resuspension chemical transport from stream beds. In: Lipnick RL, Mason RP, Phillips ML, Pittman CU Jr (eds) Chemicals in the environment, vol 806, ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 130–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Valsaraj KT, Reible DD (2001) Bioturbation–driven transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants from bed sediment. Environ Eng Sci 18:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Erickson MJ, Turner CL, Thibodeaux LJ (2005) Field observation and modeling of dissolved fraction-sediment-water exchange coefficients for PCBs in the Hudson River. Environ Sci Technol 39:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Whitman WG (1923) The two-film theory of gas absorption. Chem Metall Eng 29:146–148Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Bierman VJ (2003) The bioturbation-driven chemical release process. Environ Sci Technol 1:253A–258AGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Monteith JL, Unsworth M (1990) Principles of environmental physics. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mackay D (2001) Multimedia environmental models. Lewis, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Slinn WGN (1978) 4-Wet and dry removal processes. In: NRC (ed) The tropospheric transport of pollutants and other substances to the oceans. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trapp S, Matthies M (1998) Chemodynamics and environmental modeling. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van de Meent D (1993) Simple box: a generic multimedia fate evaluation model. RIVM Report No. 6727200001. BilthovenGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Mackay D (eds) (2010) Chapters 10,11,12,13 &17. In: Handbook of chemical mass transport in the environment. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thoma GJ, Koulermos AC, Valsaraj KT, Reible DD, Thibodeaux LJ (1991) The effect of pore-water colloids on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds from bed sediments. In: Baker RA (ed) Organic substances in water, vol 1, Humics and soils. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Valsaraj KT, Thibodeaux LJ, Reible DD (1997) A quasi-steady-state pollutant flux methodology for determining sediment quality criteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Savant SA, Reible DD, Thibodeaux LJ (1987) Convective transport within stable river sediments. Water Resour Res 23:1763–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thibodeaux LJ, Reible DD, Bosworth WS, Sarapas LC (1990) A theoretical evaluation of the effectiveness of capping PCB contaminated New Bedford Harbor bed sediments. Final Report. HSRC. Middelton Library, Louisiana State University, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cain Department Chemical EngineeringLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Germano & Associates, Inc.BellevueUSA

Personalised recommendations