Transport with Jets and Plumes of Chemicals in the Environment

  • Wenming Zhang
  • Nallamuthu Rajaratnam
  • David Z. ZhuEmail author


Jets and plumes are common in our environment. Some examples of jets are: wastewater discharged from an outfall, emission from an aircraft or vehicle, and the eruption of volcano. Some examples of plumes are: the smoke from a chimney stack or cigarette, the thermal plumes from a fire, municipal wastewater or hot water discharged in deep water, and oil spill from sea bed. One of the most important features of jets or plumes is its ability of entraining ambient fluid to achieve self-dilution. This greatly triggers our interests to study jets and plumes. This book chapter is a review of the studies on turbulent jets and plumes, with a focus on the transport of conservative pollutants.


Ambient Fluid Bubble Plume Densimetric Froude Number Plane Plume Multiport Diffuser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Bubbly jet

The jet produced by injecting gas-liquid mixture into a liquid.

Buoyant jet

The plume with momentum or jet with buoyancy.

Circular jet

The jet produced through a nozzle with a circular cross section.


The device which has multiple nozzles to quickly mix the discharged substances (e.g., effluent or air) with the surrounding ambient fluid.


The flow generated by the release of momentum usually through a nozzle or slot.

Jet in coflow

The jet discharged in the direction of a flowing ambient fluid.

Jet in crossflow

The jet discharged at an oblique angle to a flowing ambient fluid.

Plane jet

Also called “slot jet” or “two-dimensional jet”, the jet produced through a slender slot.


The flow generated by the release of buoyancy.

Surface jet

The jet discharged at (or near) the surface of an ambient fluid.

Slurry jet

The jet produced by injecting solid-liquid mixture into a liquid.

Wall jet

The jet discharged tangentially or at a certain angle to a solid boundary (wall).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenming Zhang
    • 1
  • Nallamuthu Rajaratnam
    • 1
  • David Z. Zhu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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