Oil Shale Processing, Chemistry and Technology



The work summarizes the various process emissions that occur during petroleum refining. There are also general descriptions of the various pollution, health, and environmental problems especially specific to the petroleum industry and places in perspective the government regulations as well as industry efforts to adhere to these regulations. The objective is to indicate the types of emissions and the laws that regulate these emissions.


Thermochemical Conversion Coal Pyrolysis Thermal Dissolution Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry Thermochemical Conversion Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Orga Processing, Chemistry and Technology solvent-soluble portion of oil shale organic matter.

Direct retorting

Retorting in which the process heat requirement is accomplished by combustion of a portion of the oil shale within the retort.

Ex situ retorting

Oil shale retorting performed aboveground (requiring mining of the oil shale).

Indirect retorting

Retorting in which the process heat requirement is provided by heated gaseous or solid heat carriers produced outside the retort, and then brought into contact with the retort contents.

In situ retorting

Heating of oil shale underground in order to release shale oil (also called underground retorting). Confinement of the shale is provided by the surrounding earth, in this case.


Macromolecular and organic solvent-insoluble organic matter of oil shale, but more broadly applied to these sorts of organic components of sedimentary rocks.

Oil shale

Oil shale has a wide range of definitions. A general definition that encompasses most is that it consists of a sedimentary rock containing various amounts of solid organic material bound dispersedly in a mineral matrix and yielding principally a shale oil upon pyrolysis.


A thermochemical decomposition process of organic matter, effected by heating the material in the absence of oxygen.

Retort gas

Noncondensable combustible gas, a mixture of gases from an oil shale retort that remains after particulate matter and condensed liquids have been removed.

Retort water

Water collected during oil shale retorting from offgas stream together with oil.


In shale oil recovery technologies, retorting is a pyrolytic process designed to produce oil. Generally, this process is performed by placing oil shale in a sealed vessel heated in order to promote pyrolysis; this reactor is called a retort.

Retorting residue or spent shale

Solid waste material remaining after retorting. This material contains most of the mineral matter of the original shale (possibly partially decomposed) and a carbon-rich (char) residue from the organic fraction (which may sometimes be referred to as a semicoke).

Shale oil

Room temperature liquid phase organic material, oil product, recoverable from the thermal decomposition of kerogen or separated from the offgas stream of an oil shale retort.


A bitumen not contained in the original oil shale, but produced by the action of heat on the shale; a thermal degradation (pyrolysis) product of kerogen.


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Books and Reviews

  1. Ogunsola OI, Hartstein AM, Ogunsola O (2010) Oil shale: a solution to the liquid fuel dilemma. Oxford University Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Qian J (2010) Oil shale – petroleum alternative. China Petrochemical Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  2. 2.Division of EngineeringBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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