Natural gas is an important fossil fuel that has played an increasingly significant role in worldwide electric power generation since the 1980s. The key driver underlying the importance of natural gas as a vital enabler of modern living has been its relative advantage vis-à-vis other fossil fuels in terms of emissions and pollutants.
KeywordsEntropy Fatigue Methane Fermentation Zirconia
- Brayton cycle
The thermodynamic cycle describing the operation of a gas turbine. In a combined cycle, it is the topping cycle due to its relative position vis-à-vis Rankine cycle on a temperature–entropy surface.
- Carnot cycle
Also known as the Carnot engine, it is the embodiment of the second law of thermodynamics in the form of a theoretical cycle comprising two isentropic and two isothermal processes. No heat engine operating in a thermodynamic cycle can be more efficient than the corresponding Carnot engine defined by the constant mean-effective heat addition and heat rejection temperatures.
See combined heat and power (CHP).
- Combined cycle power plant
A fossil-fired power plant that combines two types of prime movers, usually one or more gas turbines and one or more steam turbines (STs), whose operation are governed by their respective thermodynamic cycles, i.e., Brayton and Rankine.
- Combined heat and power (CHP)
A mechanical device to facilitate controlled mixing and reaction of an oxidizer (in almost all cases air) and a fuel (in almost all cases a pure hydrocarbon or a mixture thereof in gaseous or liquid phase) to generate high-temperature gaseous product for expansion in a turbine and useful shaft work generation.
A mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. There are different types of compressors, e.g., axial, radial, and reciprocating, which are suitable to different types of operating regimes.
Unless specified otherwise, the thermal efficiency of a power-generating system, which is the dimensionless ratio of generated kWh of electricity to the amount of energy required to generate it. It is the inverse of the heat rate with a suitable conversion factor.
Gases and solid particles (usually undesirable) released into the air as by-products of a combustion process (e.g., in the boiler of a fossil-fired power plant, gas turbine combustor, or other internal combustion engine) to create electric power or propel a vehicle.
- Firing temperature
The temperature of the gas turbine combustor exhaust gas at the inlet to the first stage rotor, which is the starting point of useful shaft work generation.
- Gas turbine
A prime mover or internal combustion engine comprising a compressor, combustor, and an expander connected via a common shaft, through which air is compressed, burned, and expanded to generate useful shaft work for electric power generation (or thrust in an aircraft jet engine).
A device that converts the mechanical shaft power generated by a prime mover into electrical power.
- Global warming
The apparent increase in the average temperature of the earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-twentieth century and its projected continuation (per Wikipedia).
- Greenhouse effect
The containment of heat from solar radiation striking the earth’s surface due to the earth’s atmospheric “greenhouse” gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These gases absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range and are believed to be a primary cause of global warming.
- Heat rate
Amount of energy required to generate 1 kWh of electricity. It is the inverse of the thermal efficiency with a suitable conversion factor.
- Heating value
The thermal energy produced by completely burning a unit mass of fuel in a combustor to produce carbon dioxide and water. If the water is in a gaseous phase, the heating value is referred to as net or lower heating value (LHV). If the water is in a liquid phase, the heating value is referred to as gross or higher heating value (HHV).
- Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)
Also known as the heat recovery boiler (HRB), HRSG is a cross-flow tubular heat exchanger that recovers the exhaust heat from a prime mover (e.g., a gas turbine) and produces steam at high pressure and temperature that is used in a steam turbine (ST) for additional power generation. HRSG is the key equipment that “combines” gas and steam turbines in a combined cycle power plant.
- Rankine cycle
The thermodynamic cycle describing the operation of a steam turbine. In a combined cycle, it is the bottoming cycle due to its relative position vis-à-vis Brayton cycle on a temperature-entropy surface.
- Steam turbine
A prime mover or the power-generating part of an external combustion engine comprising one or more sections connected via a common shaft, through which steam flows, expands, and discharges to a condenser to generate useful shaft work for electric power generation or propulsion.
- 1.Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2009) Annual energy review 2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer. Accessed 29 June 2009
- 2.Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2008) International energy outlook 2008. DOE/EIA-0484(2008). www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html.
- 3.United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2010) Methane. www.epa.gov/methane.
- 4.Liss WH, Thrasher WR (1992) Variability of natural gas composition in select major metropolitan areas of the United States. Gas Technology Institute, Chicago, GRI-92/013Google Scholar
- 5.Natural Gas and the Environment (2010) From http://www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp
- 6.Turbomachinery International (2008) 49(6), 10/2008, Handbook 2009. www.turbomachinerymag.com
- 7.Wärtsilä 50DF generating set (2010) From www.wartsila.com
- 8.Khan BH (2006) Non-conventional energy sources. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- 9.McNeely M (2006) Power generation order survey. Diesel & Gas Turbine Worldwide. Article from Oct 2006 issueGoogle Scholar
- 10.Burt B, Mullins S (2010) U.S. gas-fired power development: last man standing, POWER. http://www.powermag.com. Accessed Sept 2010, pp 71–73
- 11.Wilson DG, Korakianitis T (1998) The design of high efficiency turbomachinery and gas turbines, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Uppersaddle RiverGoogle Scholar
- 12.Von Ohain H (1996) Foreword. In: Mattingly JD (ed) Elements of gas turbine propulsion. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, India, Edition 2005Google Scholar
- 16.Soares C (2006) Gas turbines in simple cycle and combined cycle applications. Section 1.1 in The gas turbine handbook. US DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, NETL. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/turbines/refshelf/handbook/TableofContents.html
- 17.Leiste V (1999) Development of the siemens gas turbine and technology highlights. Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- 18.Miller H, Nemec T (2006) Gas turbines. In: Myer K (ed) Mechanical engineers’ handbook, 3rd edn., Energy and power. Wiley, Hoboken, Chapter 24Google Scholar
- 19.Brandt D (2007) A brief history of GE energy product lines. General Electric Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 21.Stodola A (1927) Steam & gas turbines. Authorized translation from the 6th German edition: Löwenstein LC. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 22.Langston LS (2010) World’s first gas turbine power plant. ASME Mech Eng 132(4):51Google Scholar
- 23.Tomlinson LO, Lee DT (1985) Combined cycles. In: Sawyer JW, Japikse D (eds) Sawyer’s gas turbine engineering handbook, Chapter 7. Turbomachinery International Publications, Norwalk, Conn., USAGoogle Scholar
- 25.Gebhardt E (2000) The F Technology experience story, GER-3950C. http://www.gepower.com
- 26.Haselbacher H (1989) Gas turbine fundamentals. In: Elliott TC (ed) Standard handbook of power plant engineering. New York, McGraw-Hill Publishing POWER magazineGoogle Scholar
- 28.Moran MJ, Shapiro HN (1988) Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 29.Cohen H, Rogers GFC, Saravanamuttoo HIH (1987) Gas turbine theory, 3rd edn. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 30.Cumpsty N (2003) Jet propulsion, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 31.Schilke PW (2004) Advanced gas turbine materials and coatings, GER-3569 G. www.gepower.com
- 32.Pritchard JE (2003) H-System™ technology update. GT2003-38711, ASME turbo expo – power for land, sea & air, 16–19 June 2003, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- 33.Koeneke C (2006) Steam cooling of large frame gas turbines one decade in operation. VDI Ber Nr 1965:33–42Google Scholar
- 34.Imwinkelried B (1995) Advanced cycle system gas turbines GT24/GT26: the highly efficient gas turbines for power generation. In: Proceedings of the 21st international congress on combustion engines, CIMAC 1995, Interlaken, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- 37.Elmasri MA, Pourkey F (1986) Prediction of cooling flow requirements for advanced utility gas turbines. Part 1: analysis and scaling of the effectiveness curve, 86-WA/HT-43, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, 7–12 Dec 1986Google Scholar
- 38.Elmasri MA (1986) Prediction of cooling flow requirements for advanced utility gas turbines. Part 2: influence of ceramic thermal barrier coatings. ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, 7–12 Dec 1986Google Scholar
- 46.Gülen SC (2010) A simple mathematical model for cooled gas turbines. GT2010-22160, ASME turbo expo – power for land, sea & air, 14–18 June 2010, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
- 48.Cheng DY, Nelson ALC (2002) The chronological development of the Cheng cycle steam injected gas turbine during the past 25 years. ASME International – IGTI Turbo Expo 2002, GT2002-30119Google Scholar
- 49.Rao A (1989) Process for producing power. U.S. Patent No. 4,289,763Google Scholar
- 51.McDonald CF, Boland CR (1981) The Nuclear Closed-Cycle Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) – dry cooled commercial power plant studies. J Eng Gas Turb Power 103:89–100Google Scholar
- 52.Reale MJ (2004) New high efficiency simple cycle gas turbine – GE’s LMS100™, GER-4222A. www.gepower.com
- 53.Mercury 50, Recuperated Gas Turbine Generator Set, Solar® Turbines (2010) www.solarturbines.com
- 54.Cox JC, Hutchinson D, Oswald JI (1995) The Westinghouse/Rolls Royce WR-21 gas turbine variable area power turbine design. ASME Paper 95-GT-54, International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Houston, TX, 5–8 June 1995Google Scholar
- 55.Hofer DC, Gülen SC (2006) Efficiency entitlement for bottoming cycles. GT2006-91213, ASME turbo expo – power for land, sea & air, Barcelona, Spain, 8–11 May 2006Google Scholar
- 56.Gülen SC, Smith RW (2008) Second law efficiency of the Rankine bottoming cycle of a combined cycle power plant. ASME Paper GT2008-51381. ASME turbo expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, 9–13 June 2008Google Scholar
- 57.Bohn D (2006) SFB 561: Aiming for 65% CC efficiency with an air-cooled GT, Modern Power Systems, pp 26–29, Sept 2006Google Scholar
- 58.Mutassim Z (2008) New gas turbine materials. Turbomachinery International, Sept/Oct 2008 issue, 38–42Google Scholar
- 59.Bohn D, Dilthey U, Schubert F (2004) Innovative Technologien für ein GuD-Kraftwerk mit 65% Wirkungsgrad. VDI-Berichte Nr 1857:13–25Google Scholar
- 60.Rao AD, Robson FL, Geisbrecht RA (2002) Power plant system configurations for the 21st century. In: ASME turbo expo 2002, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 3–7 June 2002Google Scholar
- 64.Chase DL, Kehoe PT. GE combined-cycle product line and performance, GER-3574 g. GE EnergyGoogle Scholar
- 65.Chris EM, Leroy OT. GE combined-cycle experience, GER-3651. http://www.gepower.com.
- 66.Tomlinson LO, McCullough S. Single-shaft combined – cycle power generation system, GER-3767c. http://www.gepower.com
- 67.Matta RK, Mercer GD, Tuthill RS. Power systems for the 21st century – H GT combined-cycles, GER-3935B. GE EnergyGoogle Scholar
- 68.Smith RW, Polukort P, Maslak CE, Jones CM, Gardiner BD. Advanced technology combined cycles, GER-3936a. GE Power SystemsGoogle Scholar
- 69.Phylipsen GJM, Blok K, Worrell E (1998) Handbook on international comparisons of energy efficiency in the manufacturing industry. Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- 70.Gülen SC (2010) A proposed definition of CHP efficiency, POWER. http://www.powermag.com, pp 58–63, June 2010
- 71.European Association for the Promotion of Cogeneration (Mar 2001) A guide to cogeneration. http://www.cogeneurope.eu/wp-content/uploads//2009/02/educogen_cogen_guide.pdf
- 72.Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2009) Annual energy review 2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer. Accessed 29 June 2009
- 73.Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2010) Electric power annual. http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelelectric.html. Accessed 20 Jan 2010
- 74.Davis LB, Black SH (2000) Dry low nox combustion systems for GE heavy-duty gas turbines, GER-3568 g. http://www.gepower.com
- 76.Roointon, Pavri, Moore, Gerald D (2001) Gas turbine emissions and control, GER-4211. http://www.gepower.com
- 79.Davi MA (1994) GE gas turbine combustion flexibility, GER-3946. GE EnergyGoogle Scholar
- 80.Miller HE (1994) Development of the GE quiet combustor and other design changes to benefit quality, GER-3551. http://www.gepower.com
- 81.Peters M, Timmerhaus K, West R (2004) Plant design and economics for chemical engineers, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 83.Kehlhofer R, Warner J, Nielsen H, Bachmann R (1999) Combined cycle gas & steam turbine power plants, 2nd edn. PennWell Corp, TulsaGoogle Scholar
- 84.As reported in the press per Potential Gas Committee report (2008) Potential supply of natural gas in the United States, Potential Gas Agency, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 31 Dec 2008Google Scholar
- 86.Wagman D (2010) Can natural gas displace coal? Power Eng (Mar 2010 issue): 4Google Scholar
- 87.The future of natural gas – an interdisciplinary MIT study (2010) Interim report by MIT Energy Initiative, ISBN 978-0-9828008-0-5, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, BostonGoogle Scholar
- 88.Robb D (2010) CCGT: breaking the 60 percent efficiency barrier. Power Eng Int 18(3). www.peimagazine.com
- 89.Review of status of advanced materials for power generation, Technology Status Report, Cleaner Coal Technology Programme, Department of Trade and Industry (Oct 2002) LondonGoogle Scholar
- 90.Tukagoshi K, Muyama A, Uchida S et al (Oct 2005) Latest technology for large capacity gas turbine. MHI Tech Rev 42(3)Google Scholar
- 94.Tangirala VE, Rasheed A, Dean AJ (2007) Performance of a pulse detonation combustor-based hybrid engine, GT2007-28056. ASME turbo expo – power for land, sea & air, Montreal, Canada, 14–18 June 2007Google Scholar
- 95.Gülen SC (2010) Gas turbine with constant volume heat addition. ESDA2010-24817. ASME 2010 10th biennial conference on engineering systems design and analysis, Istanbul, Turkey, 12–14 July 2010Google Scholar
Books and Reviews
- Bejan A (2006) Advanced engineering thermodynamics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Boss M (1996) Steam turbines for STAG™ combined cycle power systems, GER-3582E. http://www.gepower.com
- Boyce MP (2006) Gas turbine engineering handbook, 3rd edn. Gulf Professional Publishing, HoustonGoogle Scholar
- Chase D (2001) Combined cycle development evolution and future, GER-4206. http://www.gepower.com
- Colegrove D, Mason P, Retzlaff K, Cornell D (2001) Structured steam turbines for the combined cycle market, GER-4201. http://www.gepower.com
- Constant EW II (1980) The origins of the turbojet revolution. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore/LondonGoogle Scholar
- Cotton KC (1998) Evaluating and improving steam turbine performance, 2nd edn. Cotton Fact Inc, RexfordGoogle Scholar
- Dunn MG (2001) Convective heat transfer and aerodynamics in axial flow turbines. J Eng Gas Turb Power 123:637–686Google Scholar
- Elmasri MA (2007) Design of gas turbine combined cycle and cogeneration systems – theory, practice and optimization. Seminar Notes, Thermoflow, Inc., Sudbury, MA. email@example.comGoogle Scholar
- Han JC, Dutta S, Ekkad SV (2000) Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Horlock JH (2001) Combined power plants: including Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plants. Krieger Publishing Company, MalabarGoogle Scholar
- Kehlhofer R, Hannemann F, Stirnimann F, Rukes B (2009) Combined cycle gas & steam turbine power plants, 3rd edn. PennWell Corp, TulsaGoogle Scholar
- Lakshminarayana B (1996) Fluid dynamics and heat transfer of turbomachinery. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Nag PK (2006) Power plant engineering, 2nd edn. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Saravanamuttoo HIH, Rogers GFC, Cohen H, Straznicky PV (2009) Gas turbine theory, 6th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- Traupel W (1977) Thermische Turbomaschinen, Erster Band, Thermodynamisch-strömungstechnische Berechnung, 3, neuarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar