Globalization, Environmental Change, and Coping Strategies Among the Ifugao of the Philippine Cordillera Mountains

Part of the Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation book series (STHE, volume 7)


As Ifugao people have become more extensively integrated into the global market economy, their ability to adapt to the environment in the Philippine Cordillera Mountains has involved an expansion of the scope of the sources of livelihood available to them. Ifugao people have faced difficult environmental and social conditions in recent decades, including a growing population, deforestation, and rice terrace degradation. From engaging in tourism, transnational labor migration, craft production for global exportation, and international development programs, to maintain swiddens to raise particular crops, Ifugao people have coped with these challenges by finding creative ways to diversify their livelihoods and participate in opportunities both within and outside of the Cordillera Mountains. These labor practices have enhanced the ability of their culture, as well as their kin groups, to thrive and change in relation to their shifting social and natural environment. But this process has also been an uneven one among different social groups. This anthropological political ecology analysis assesses class and gender differences in approaches to coping with a changing social, cultural, and natural environment among Ifugao people in the Cordillera Mountains during the late twentieth century.


Coping Response Root Crop Political Ecology Craft Production Glutinous Rice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams, K. M. (2006). Art as politics: Re-crafting identities, tourism, and power in Tana Toraja, Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bank, A. D. (2002). Indigenous peoples/ethnic minorities and poverty reduction, Philippines. Manila, Philippines: Environment and Social Safeguard Division, Regional and Sustainable Development Department, Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  3. Barton, R. F. (1919). Ifugao law. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brookfield, H. (2001). Exploring agrodiversity. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Conklin, H. C. (1980). Ethnographic Atlas of Ifugao: A study of environment, culture, and society in Northern Luzon. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Finin, G. A. (2008). “Igorotism”, rebellion, and regional autonomy in the Cordillera. In R. Rutten (Ed.), Brokering a revolution: Cadres in a Philippine insurgency (pp. 77–123). Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fry, H. T. (1983). A history of the mountain province. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Kwiatkowski, L. (1998). Struggling with development: The politics of hunger and gender in the Philippines. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kwiatkowski, L. (2008). Fear and empathy in revolutionary conflict: Views of NPA soldiers among Ifugao civilians. In R. Rutten (Ed.), Brokering a revolution: Cadres in a Philippine insurgency (pp. 233–279). Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Leatherman, T. (1995). A biocultural perspective on health and household economy in Southern Peru. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10(4), 476–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leatherman, T. (2005). A space of vulnerability in poverty and health: Political-ecology and biocultural analysis. Ethos, 33(1), 46–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines. (1990). Ifugao: Provincial profile. December. Manila: Republic of the Philippines National Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  13. National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines. (1992a). 1990 census of population and housing: Socio economic and demographic characteristics, Ifugao. Report no. 3-39N. Manila: Republic of the Philippines National Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  14. National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines. (1992b). Highlights of the 1991 family income and expenditures survey preliminary results. Special release, October, ISSN 0016 2640, Number 729. Manila: Office of the Administrator, National Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  15. Republic of the Philippines, Congress of the Philippines. (1997). The indigenous peoples rights act of 1997. Republic Act No. 8371. Manila.Google Scholar
  16. Roseberry, W. (1988). Political economy. Annual Review of Anthropology 17, 161–185.Google Scholar
  17. Serrano, R. C., & Cadaweng, E. A. (2005). The Ifugao Muyong: Sustaining water, culture and life. In P. B. Durst, C. Brown, H. D. Tacio, & M. Ishikawa (Eds.), In search of excellence: Exemplary forest management in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 103–112). Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific.Google Scholar
  18. Ticsay, M. V. (2005). Fragmentation of the Ifugao agroecological landscape. In: M. R. Dove, P. E. Sajise, & A. A. Doolittle (Eds.), Conserving nature in culture: Case studies from Southeast Asia (pp. 169–214). Monograph 54. New Haven, CT: Yale Southeast Asia Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Turner, S. (2007). Trading old textiles: The selective diversification of highland livelihoods in Northern Vietnam. Human Organization, 66(4), 389–404.Google Scholar
  20. Waterson, R. (1993). Taking the place of sorrow: The dynamics of mortuary rites among the Sa’dan Toraja. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 21(2), 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Watts, M., & Peet, R. (2004). Liberating political ecology. In R. Peet & M. Watts (Eds.), Liberation ecologies: Environment, development, social movements (2nd ed., pp. 3–43). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations