Hurricane and Monsoon Tracking with Driftsondes
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are a typical weather threat. The threat can apply to humans, their properties, and activities. Their prediction, particularly their trajectory and intensity, remains difficult. In addition, TCs develop above the tropical oceans where the coverage by in situ observations is poor and within cloud clusters (mesoscale convective systems MCS) that limit the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to assimilate satellite data . Improved forecast of TCs trajectories is a huge benefit in terms of material costs of evacuations and damage, not being able to quantify saved life.
KeywordsVortex Dust Convection Depression Europe
- African easterly jet (AEJ)
Wind jet developing at about 600-hPa pressure level (about 4,200 m) and 5°N latitude over the African continent.
- African easterly waves (AEWs)
Synoptic scale, westward propagating waves embedded in the AEJ.
African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program, initiated in 2002 with an intensive field campaign in 2006, and focusing on the physical changes in the environment of the West African monsoon and their impacts on society.
- Boundary layer pressurized balloon (BLPB)
Balloon drifting in the atmospheric boundary layer and carrying an instrumented gondola which collects measurements of the typical meteorological variables.
International project of the THORPEX-International Polar Year aiming at a better understanding of the climate of Antarctica.
Stratospheric drifting balloon launching dropsondes over high-impact weather, providing vertical profiles of meteorological data.
A hurricane is a tropical cyclone, occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean or the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain.
Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean experiment (HyMeX) program aiming at improving the understanding of running-water cycle in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on the evolution and predictability of hydro-meteorological extreme events in the perspective of climate change.
- Mesoscale convective system (MCS)
Complex of thunderstorms normally persisting for several hours or more.
- Saharan air layer (SAL)
Surges of hot, dry air that cascade into the Atlantic from the Sahel region of Africa.
Global program of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aiming at accelerating improvements in the prediction of high-impact weather.
THORPEX-North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream impact Experiment.
THORPEX Pacific Asian Regional Campaign.
- West African monsoon
Rainy phase of a seasonal change in atmospheric circulation over West Africa. The other major monsoon systems are the Asia-Australian monsoons in the sampled environment.
We are thankful to J. Fox, K. Romberg, J. VanAndel, H. Cole, C. Martin, G. Granger, D. Flanigan, and D. Lauritsen (NCAR) for assistance in operation of the driftsonde system. Based on French initiative, AMMA was built by an international scientific group and is currently funded by a large number of agencies, especially from France, UK, Germany, USA, and Africa. It has been the beneficiary of a major financial contribution from the European Community’s Sixth Framework Research Program. Detailed information on scientific coordination and funding is available on the AMMA International website http://www.amma-international.org.
- 6.Drobinski P, Parsons D, Cocquerez P, Cardonne A, Cole H, Fox J, Lefevre JP, Redelsperger JL, Romberg K, VanAndel J, Vénel S (2006) Des ballons stratosphriques traquent la mousson africaine. La Météorologie 55:2–3Google Scholar
- 7.Drobinski P, Basdevant C, Doerenbecher A, Pannekoucke O, Fesquet C, Verdier N, Vargas A (2010) Balloon deployment during the HyMeX (Hydrological in the Mediterranan EXperiment) project. 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, BremenGoogle Scholar
- 8.Drobinski P, Karbou F, Bauer P, Cocquerez P, Lavaysse C, Hock T, Parsons D, Rabier F, Redelsperger JL, Vénel S (2011) Driftsonde observations to evaluate numerical weather prediction of the late 2006 African monsoon. J Appl Meteorol Climatol (submitted)Google Scholar
- 9.Elsberry RL, Harr PA (2008) Tropical cyclone structure (TCS-08) field experiment science basis, observational platforms, and strategy. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 44:209–231Google Scholar
- 14.Janicot S, Thorncroft CD, Ali A, Asencio N, Berry G, Bock O, Bourles B, Caniaux G, Chauvin F, Deme A, Kergoat L, Lafore JP, Lavaysse C, Lebel T, Marticorena B, Mounier F, Nedelec P, Redelsperger JL, Ravegnani F, Reeves CE, Roca R, de Rosnay P, Schlager H, Sultan B, Tomasini M, Ulanovsky A (2008) ACMAD forecasters team: large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006. Ann Geophys 26:2569–2595ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Joly A, Browning KA, Bessemoulin P, Cammas J-P, Caniaux G, Chalon J-P, Clough SA, Dirks R, Emanuel KA, Eymard L, Gall R, Hewson TD, Hildebrand PH, Jorgensen D, Lalaurette F, Langland RH, Lematre Y, Mascart P, Moore JA, Persson PO, Roux F, Shapiro MA, Snyder C, Toth Z, Wakimoto RM (1999) Overview of the field phase of the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX) project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 125:3131–3163ADSGoogle Scholar
- 19.Rabier F, Bouchard A, Brun E, Doerenbecher A, Guedj S, Guidard V, Karbou F, Peuch V-H, El Amraoui L, Puech D, Genthon C, Picard G, Town M, Hertzog A, Vial F, Cocquerez P, Cohn SA, Hock T, Fox J, Cole H, Parsons D, Powers J, Romberg K, VanAndel J, Deshler T, Mercer J, Haase JS, Avallone L, Kalnajs L, Mechoso CR, Tangborn A, Pellegrini A, Frenot Y, Thpaut J-N, McNally A, Balsamo G, Steinle P (2010) The Concordiasi project in Antarctic. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 91:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar