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Volcanoes, Observations and Impact

Chapter

Abstract

Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

Keywords

Global Position System Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer Pyroclastic Flow Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer Ozone Monitoring Instrument 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

Caldera

Large crater formed by collapse of an overlying structure when an eruption empties a magma reservoir.

Effusive

Eruption of fluid molten material that later solidifies.

Fumarole

A volcanic vent that emits hot gas.

Infrasound

Sound waves at frequencies below the range of human hearing (<20 Hz).

Interferogram

A pattern of satellite radar wave “fringes” formed by interference, analogous to the colorful pattern from light reflected by a thin film of oil or gas, that can indicate ground deformation.

Lahar

Heavy flow of mud, water, and debris triggered by interactions of hot material with ice of water or when heavy rain falls on recently erupted unconsolidated material.

Phreatic

Explosion caused by heating and expansion of ground water.

Pyroclastic

Composed of rock fragments ejected explosively from an erupting volcano.

Tremor

Continuous vibration of the ground related to magma movement.

Volatiles

Dissolved gases contained in magma.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeoscienceUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.SeismologyUSGS Volcano Science Center, Alaska Volcano ObservatoryAnchorageUSA

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