Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism: Global Threats and Local Responses

  • Leslie W. Kennedy
  • Yasemin Irvin-Erickson
  • Alexis R. Kennedy
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)


This “brief” offers an overview of how analysis of crime and terrorism can be evaluated both in terms of research to practice (what we interpret as “translational”) and combining the two literatures relating to global and local effects. The complications that come from merging two sets of literature, drawing from security studies and criminology, may create challenges for the reader unfamiliar with one or the other. However, our take on this series is that it is supposed to introduce readers to different literature, not necessarily expound on it in detail. If one is interested in pursuing this topic further, references are included.


Human Trafficking Terrorist Group Common Methodology Inside Threat Terror Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Appell, D. (2001). Precautionary principle: The new uncertainty principle. Scientific American 18–19.Google Scholar
  2. Aronofsky, D., & Cooper, M. (2009). The war on terror and international human rights: Does Europe get it right. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 37(4), 567–613.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Bednar, P. M., Katos, V., & Hennell, C. (2009). On the complexity of collaborative cyber crime investigations. Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review, 6, 214–219.Google Scholar
  5. Björnehed, E. (2004). Narco-terrorism: The merger of the war on drugs and the war on terror. Global Crime, 6(3&4), 305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouchard, M., & Wilkins, C. (2009). Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Brané, M., & Lundholm, C. (2008). Human rights behind bars: Advancing the rights of immigration detainees in the United States through human rights frameworks. Immigration Law Journal, 22(2), 147–175.Google Scholar
  8. Brenner, S. W. (2004). Toward a criminal law for cyberspace: A new model of law enforcement? Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal, 30, 1–104.Google Scholar
  9. Brenner, S. W. (2007a). Private-public sector cooperation in combating cybercrime: In search of a model. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 2(2), 58–67.Google Scholar
  10. Brenner, S. W. (2007b). At light speed: Attribution and response to cybercrime/terrorism/warfare. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 97(2), 379–476.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, G. D. (2011). Why Iran didn’t admit Stuxnet was an attack. Joint Force Quarterly, 63, 70–73. Retrieved from
  12. Campbell Collaborative. (2013). Retrieved from
  13. Caplan, J., & Kennedy, L. W. (2011). Risk terrain modelling manual. Newark, NJ: Rutgers Center on Public Security.Google Scholar
  14. Carter, D. L., & Carter, J. G. (2009). The intelligence fusion process for state, local, and tribal law enforcement. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 1323–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter, J., & Chermak, S. (2012). Evidence-based intelligence practices: Examining the role of fusion centers as a critical source of information. In C. Lum & L. W. Kennedy (Eds.), Evidence-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 65–88). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CE (Council of Europe). (2010). Information documents SG/Inf(2010)4. Salvador, Brazil. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from
  17. Cha, V. D. (2000). Globalization and the study of international security. Journal of Peace Research, 37(3), 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CIA. (2013). The world factbook 2013–14. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from Scholar
  19. Cohen, D. H. (2010). Post-9/11 anti-terrorism policy regarding noncitizens and the constitutional idea of equal protection under the laws. Texas Law Review, 88(6), 1323–1343.Google Scholar
  20. Cole, D. (2003). Enemy aliens: Double standards and constitutional freedoms in the war on terrorism. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  21. CTC (Counter-Terrorism Committee). (2011). CTC Chairman biographical note, Ertuğrul Apakan. Security Council. Retrieved from
  22. CTC (Counter-Terrorism Committee). (2013). Our mandate. Security Council. Retrieved from
  23. Curtis, G. E., & Karacan, T. (2002). The nexus among terrorists, narcotics traffickers, weapons proliferations, and organized crime networks in Western Europe. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
  24. Dandurand, Y. & V. Chin. (2004). Links between terrorism and other forms of crime. Retrieved from
  25. Davis, L. E. (2003). Globalization’s security implications. RAND Issue Paper. Retrieved from
  26. Davison, A. (2003). Turkey, a ‘secular’ state? The challenge of description. South Atlantic Quarterly, 102(2/3), 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dishman, C. (2001). Terrorism, crime, and transformation. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24(1), 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doğruel, F., & Leman, J. (2009). ‘Conduct’ and ‘counterconduct’ on the southern border of Turkey: Multicultural Antakya. Middle Eastern Studies, 45(4), 596–610.Google Scholar
  29. Falliere, N., Murchu, L. O., & Chien, E. (2011). W32.Stuxnet Dossier. Retrieved from
  30. FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). (2008). Fact sheet: Justice Department counter-terrorism efforts since 9/11. Washington, DC: Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  31. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). (2013). Incident command system. Retrieved from
  32. Ferguson, Y. H., & Mansbach, R. W. (2004). Remapping global politics: History’s revenge and future shock. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flegenheimer, M. (2012). Zappos says hackers may have accessed customer account details. NY Times, January 16. Retrieved from
  34. Fratta, A. (2010). Post-9/11 responses to mass casualty bombings in Europe: Lessons, trends and implications for the United States. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33(4), 364–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gawande, A. (2013, April 17). Why Boston’s hospitals were ready. The New Yorker. Retrieved from
  36. GCN. (2012, July 31). DOD wants cyberterrorism-prediction software. Retrieved from
  37. Gercke, M. (2011). Understanding cybercrime: A guide for developing countries. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved from
  38. Gerring, J. (2001). Social science methodology: A critical framework. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerring, J. (2010). Social science methodology: Tasks, strategies, criteria. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Goodman, M. D., & Brenner, S. W. (2002). Emerging consensus on criminal conduct in cyberspace. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 10(2), 139–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gottschalk, P. (2009). Value configurations in organised crime. Policing & Security, 19(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross, J. M. (2011, April). A declaration of cyber-war. Vanity Fair. Retrieved from
  43. Haller, M. H. (1990). Illegal enterprise: A theoretical and historical interpretation. Criminology, 28(2), 207–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herman, M., McDonald, J., & Mastny, V. (2006). Did intelligence matter in the Cold War? Forsvarsstudier. Google Scholar
  45. Hutchinson, S., & O’Malley, P. (2007). A crime–terror nexus? Thinking on some of the links between terrorism and criminality. Studies in Conflict Terrorism, 30(12), 1095–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ikenberry, G. J. (2003). Review of the book Distant proximities: Dynamics beyond globalization by J.M. Rosenau. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from
  47. Jenkins, W. (2007). Homeland security: Preparing for and responding to disasters. In Testimony before the Subcommitte on Homeland Security, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: GAO.Google Scholar
  48. K2E Security. (2013). Analysis of the Siemens SCADA and Windows shortcut vulnerabilities. Retrieved from
  49. Karimi, N. (2011, March 14). Report: Iran’s paramilitary launches cyber attack. Washington Post. Retrieved from
  50. Kaspersky, E. (2011, November 2). The man who found stuxnet- sergey ulasen in the spotlight. Nota Bene. Retrieved from
  51. Kennedy, L. W., Marteache, N., & Gaziarifoglu, Y. (2011). Understanding scalability of risk, global risk assessment: The search for a common methodology. In L. W. Kennedy & E. F. McGarrell (Eds.), Crime and terrorism risk studies in criminology and criminal justice (pp. 29–53). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. LaFree, G. (2012). Generating terrorism event databases: Results from the global terrorism database, 1970 to 2008. In C. Lum & L. W. Kennedy (Eds.), Event-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 41–64). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. LaFree, G., Yang, S. M., & Crenshaw, M. (2009). Trajectories of terrorism. Criminology and Public Policy, 8(3), 445–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Langner, R. (2011). Stuxnet: Dissecting a cyberwarfare weapon. IEEE Security and Privacy, 9(3), 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laub, J. H. (2011). What is translational criminology. NIJ Journal, 268, 16–21.Google Scholar
  56. Lieberman, E. S. (2010). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Best practices in the development of historically oriented replication databases. Annual Review of Political Science, 13, 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loder, A. & Deprez, E. E. (2013, April 19). Boston bombing victim in photo helped identify suspects. Bloomberg. Retrieved from
  58. Lovet, G. (2009). Fighting cybercrime: Technical, juridical and ethical challenges. Retrieved July 06, 2013 from,Juridical_and_Ethical_Challenges.pdf
  59. Lum, C., & Kennedy, L. W. (2012). Evidence-based counterterrorism policy. In L. W. Kennedy & C. Lum (Eds.), Evidence-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 1–3). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lum, C., Kennedy, L. W., & Sherley, A. (2006). Are counter-terrorism strategies effective? The results of the Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism evaluation research. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 489–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lustick, I. (2006). Trapped in the war on terror. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  62. Markoff, J., Sanger, D. E., & Shanker, T. (2010, January 25). In digital combat, U.S. finds no easy deterrent. New York Times. Retrieved from
  63. Marks, P. (2011, January). Why the Stuxnet worm is like nothing seen before. New Scientist. Retrieved from
  64. Matarese, J. (2013, April 18). Security meeting held for Long Island Marathon after bombings. ABC. Retrieved from
  65. Merola, L. M. (2012). Evaluating the legal challenges and effects of counterterrorism policy. In C. Lum & L. W. Kennedy (Eds.), Evidence-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 281–300). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moitra, S. D. (2005). Developing policies for cybercrime: Some empirical issues. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 13(3), 435–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mueller, J. (2006). Overblown. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  68. Mueller, P. & Yadegari, B. (2012). The Stuxnet Worm. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from
  69. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). The 9/11 commission report: Final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. Washington, DC: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States.Google Scholar
  70. NCSA (National Cyber Security Alliance). (2013). Stay safe online. Retrieved from
  71. Newman, G. R., & Clarke, R. V. (2003). Superhighway robbery: Preventing e-commerce crime. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Ozkan, O. (2013). A law enforcement perspective to intelligence failure in mass casualty terrorist attacks by global jihadist movements. A comparative study of September 11, 2001 and November 15–20, 2003 attacks. Dissertation. Newark, NJ: Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  73. PCMAG. (2013a). Botnet. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from
  74. PCMAG. (2013c). Patch. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from
  75. Perri, F. S., Lichtenwald, T. G., & MacKenzie, P. M. (2009). The evil twins: The crime terror nexus. Forensic Examiner, 18(4), 16–29.Google Scholar
  76. Pickert, J. & Sorenson, S. (2013, April 23). Inside reddit’s hunt for Boston bombers. Time. Retrieved from
  77. Reuters. (2005, August 8). Chronology of Iran’s nuclear program. NY Times. Retrieved from
  78. Rodoplu, U., Arnold, J. L., Tokyay, R., Ersoy, G., Cetiner, S., & Yücel, T. (2005a). Impact of the terrorist bombings of the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel synagogues on a hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Academic Emergency Medicine, 12(2), 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodoplu, U., Arnold, J. L., Tokyay, R., Ersoy, G., Cetiner, S., & Yücel, T. (2005b). Impact of the terrorist bombings of the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank Corporation headquarters and the British Consulate on two hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey in November, 2003. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care, 59(1), 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosenau, J. N. (2003). Distant proximities: Dynamics beyond globalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rössel, T. (2011). Post-Stuxnet industrial security issues demand new malware solutions. Manufacturing Engineering, 146(5), 30–35.Google Scholar
  82. Rusnak, D. M., Kennedy, L. W., Eldivan, I. S., & Caplan, J. M. (2012). Analyzing terrorism using spatial analysis techniques: A case study of Turkish cities. In C. Lum & L. W. Kennedy (Eds.), Evidence-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 167–185). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sacco, V., & Kennedy, L. W. (2002). The criminal event: Explorations in time and space. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  84. Sacco, V., & Kennedy, L. W. (2010). The criminal event (5th ed.). Toronto, ON, Canada: Nelson.Google Scholar
  85. Sanger, D. E. & Schmitt, E. (2012, July 26). Rise is seen in cyberattacks targeting U.S. infrastructure. NY Times. Retrieved from
  86. Schmid, I. S. (2004). Statistics of terrorism: The challenge of measuring trends, global terrorism. Forum of Crime and Society, 4(1–2), 49–69.Google Scholar
  87. Scholte, J. (2005). Globalization: A critical introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave McMillan.Google Scholar
  88. Senay, B. (2008). How do the youth perceive and experience Turkish citizenship. Middle Eastern Studies, 44(6), 963–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shearer, J. (2011). W32. Stuxnet. Symantec. Retrieved May 27, 2013 from
  90. Sheehan, I. S. (2012). Assessing and comparing data sources for terrorism research. In C. Lum & L. W. Kennedy (Eds.), Evidence-based counterterrorism policy (pp. 13–40). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shively, K. (2008). Taming Islam: Studying religion in secular Turkey. Anthropological Quarterly, 81(3), 683–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sieber, U., & Brunst, P. W. (2007). Cyberterrorism—The use of the Internet for terrorist purposes. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.Google Scholar
  93. START. (2011). Background report: 9/11, Ten years later. College Park, MD: University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  94. Stouffer, K., Falco, J., & Scarfone, K. (2011). Guide to industrial control systems (ICS) security. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved from Scholar
  95. Sullivan, E., Barr, B., & Zezima, K. (2013, April 19). Tamerlan Tsarnaev dead: Boston marathon bombing suspect one dies in shootout (live updates). Huffington Post. Retrieved from
  96. Surowiecki, J. (2013, April 24). The wise way to crowdsource a manhunt. The New Yorker. Retrieved from
  97. Terdiman, D. (2012, April 13). Report: Stuxnet delivered to Iranian nuclear plant on thumb drive. CBS News. Retrieved from
  98. TRAC (Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse). (2010). Detention of criminal aliens: What has congress bought. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University. Retrieved from Scholar
  99. Treverton, G. F., Jones, S. G., Boraz, S., & Lipscy, P. (2006). Toward a theory of intelligence. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.Google Scholar
  100. UN News Centre. (2011, March 16). Growing links between crime and terrorism the focus of UN Forum. Retrieved from,%20Date%20of%20last%20access:%20July%2024,%202012
  101. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2013, February 17). Afghan national police cadets return home from training in Turkey. UNDP Afghanistan. Retrieved from
  102. United Nations. (2013). Global pulse. Retrieved from
  103. United Nations General Assembly, 60th session. (2006, September 20). Resolution 288. The United Nations global counter-terrorism strategy. (A/RES/60/288). Official record. New York.Google Scholar
  104. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drug and Crime). (2011). Open-ended intergovernmental expert group to conduct a comprehensive study of the problem of cybercrime. Retrieved from
  105. UNSC (United Nations Security Council). (2001). Resolution 1373. S/RES/1373. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from
  106. USGAO (United States General Accounting Office). (2004, March). Critical infrastructure protection: Challenges and efforts to secure control systems. Report to Congressional Requesters. Retrieved from
  107. Van Brunschot, E. G., & Kennedy, L. W. (2008). Risk balance and security. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  108. Van Brunschot, E. G., & Kennedy, L. W. (2011). The risk of crime, a framework. In L. W. Kennedy & E. F. McGarrell (Eds.), Crime and terrorism risk studies in criminology and criminal justice (pp. 7–16). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Verdelho, P. (2008). The effectiveness of international co-operation against cybercrime: Examples of good practice. Project on Cybercrime of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from
  110. Voloder, L. (2012). Secular citizenship and muslim belonging in Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies., 36(5), 838–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. WCVB. (2013, April 18). ‘Lord & Taylor’ video leads to identification of Boston marathon bombing suspect.. Retrieved May 25, 2013 from
  112. (2013). Fast-flux DNS. Retrieved June 29, 2013 from
  113. White, J. B. (2002). Islamist mobilization in turkey: A study in vernacular politics. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  114. WHO (World Health Organization). (2009). Pandemic influenza preparedness and response. Retrieved from
  115. Wilson, C. (2005). Computer attack and cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and policy issues for congress. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Retrieved from
  116. Wilson, C. (2008). Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and policy issues for congress. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Retrieved from
  117. Wortley, R. & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the Internet. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from
  118. Yavuz, U. G. & Yildirim, N. (n.d.) International Police Cooperation on Counter-Terrorism (CT) in Turkey. Retrieved May 25, 2013 (
  119. Zgoba, K., Witt, P., Dalessandro, M., & Veysey, B. (2008). Megan’s law: Assessing the practical and monetary efficacy. Trenton, NJ: The Research and Evaluation Unit Office of Policy Planning New Jersey Department of Corrections.Google Scholar
  120. Zhu, B., Joseph, A., & Sastry, S. (2011, October). Taxonomy of cyber attacks on SCADA Systems. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Cyber, Physical, and Social Computing (CPSCom 2011). Dalian, China.Google Scholar
  121. Anarumo, M. (2011). Threats, vulnerability, and exposure to terrorism: The practitioner’s view of terrorism threat. In L. W. Kennedy & E. F. McGarrell (Eds.), Crime and terrorism risk (pp. 54–79). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  122. Boone, W. (2013). Risk management. In R. Radvanovsky & J. Brodsky (Eds.), Handbook of SCADA/control systems security (pp. 41–83). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie W. Kennedy
    • 1
  • Yasemin Irvin-Erickson
    • 1
  • Alexis R. Kennedy
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Criminal JusticeRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Fort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations