Physical Exercise and the Human Stress Response

  • George S. EverlyJr.
  • Jeffrey M. Lating


It has been suggested (Chavat, Dell, & Folkow, 1964; Kraus & Rabb, 1961; Nesse, Bhatnagar, & Young, 2007) that the “wisdom of the body” dictates that the human stress response should lead to physical exertion or exercise. Indeed, physical exercise appears to be the most effective way of ventilating, or expressing, the stress response in a health-promoting manner, once it has been engendered.


Physical Activity Physical Exercise Exercise Program Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Resistance Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American College of Sports Medicine. (2010). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  2. Balog, L. F. (1978). The effects of exercise on muscle tension and subsequent muscle relaxation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  3. Banerjee, A. K., Mandal, A., Chanda, D., & Chakraborti, S. (2003). Oxidant, antioxidant and physical exercise. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 253(1–2), 307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson, H. (1975). The relaxation response. New York, NY: Morrow.Google Scholar
  5. Bird, M., Hill, K. D., Ball, M., Hetherington, S., & Williams, A. D. (2011). The long-term benefits of a multi-component exercise intervention to balance and mobility in healthy older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 52(2), 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair, S. N., Kampert, J. B., Kohl, H. W., Barlow, C. E., Macera, C. A., Paffenberger, R. S., & Gibbons, L. W. (1996). Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276(3), 205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Doraiswamy, M., Watkins, L., Hoffman, B. M., Barbour, K. A., Herman, S., Craighead, W. E., Brosse, A. L., Waugh, R., Hinderliter, A., & Sherwood, A. (2007). Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumenthal, J. A., & Ong, L. (2009). A commentary on “Exercise and Depression” (Mead et al., 2008): And the verdict is…. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 2(2), 97–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumenthal, J. A., Sherwood, A., Babyak, M. A., Watkins, L. L., Waugh, R., Georgiades, A.& Hinderliter, A. (2005). Effects of exercise and stress management training on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(13), 1626–1634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N., Church, T. S., Earnest, C. P., Hagbert, J. M., Häkkinen, K., Rankinen, T. (2012). Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: Is it a rare or common occurrence? PLoS One, 7(5), e37887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boule, N. G., Kenny, G. P., Haddad, E., Wells, G. A., & Sigal, R. J. (2003). Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia, 46, 1071–1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broman-Fulks, J. J., & Storey, K. M. (2008). Evaluation of a brief aerobic exercise intervention for high anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety Stress Coping, 21(2), 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buckworth, J., & Dishman, R. K. (2007). Exercise adherence. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 509–536). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Cannon, W. B. (1914). The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and in the major emotions. American Journal of Physiology, 33, 356–372.Google Scholar
  15. Cannon, W. B. (1929). Bodily changes in pain, fear, hunger, and rage. New York, NY: Appleton.Google Scholar
  16. Castaneda, F., Layne, J. E., & Castaneda, C. (2006). Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(3), 84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castell, B. D., Kazantzis, K., & Moss-Morris, R. E. (2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise for chronic fatigue syndrome: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18(4), 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chavat, J., Dell, P., & Folkow, B. (1964). Mental factors and cardiovascular disorders. Cardiologia, 44, 124–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Collier, S. R., Kanaley, J. A., Carhart, R., Jr., Frechette, V., Tobin, M. M., Bennett, N., Fernhall, B. (2008). Cardiac autonomic function and baroreflex changes following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic training in individuals with pre-hypertension. Acta Physiologica, 195(3), 339–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, K. H. (1977). The aerobics way: New data on the world’s most popular exercise program. New York, NY: M. Evans.Google Scholar
  21. Courneya, K. S., Segal, R. J., Mackey, J. R., Gelmon, K., Reid, R. D., Friedenreich, C. M., & Kenzie, D. C. (2007). Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(28), 4396–4404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cox, R. H. (2002). Sport psychology: Concepts and applications. St. Louis, MO: McGraw-Hill Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Craft, L. L., & Perna, F. M. (2004). The benefits of exercise of the clinically depressed. The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 6(3), 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Jong, Z., Munneke, M., Lems, W. F., Zwinderman, A. H., Kroon, H. M., Pauwels, K. J., Hazes, J. M. W. (2004). Slowing of bone loss in pateitns with rheumatoid arthirisi by long-term high-intensity exercise. Results of a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 50(4), 1066–1076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Jong, Z., Munneke, M., Zwinderman, A. H., Kroon, H. M., Jansen, A., Ronday, K. H., Hazes, J. M. (2003). Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 48, 2415–2424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Peuter, S., de Jong, J., Crombez, G., & Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2009). The nature and treatment of pain-related fear in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 23(1), 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Vries, H. (1966). Physiology of exercise. Dubuque, IA: Brown.Google Scholar
  28. de Vries, H. (1968). Immediate and long-term effects of exercise upon resting muscle action potential level. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 8, 1–11.Google Scholar
  29. de Vries, H. (1981). Tranquilizer effect of exercise. America’s Journal of Physical Medicine, 60, 57–66.Google Scholar
  30. DiLorenzo, T. M., Bargman, E. P., Stucky-Ropp, R., Brassington, G. S., Frensch, P. A., & LaFontaine, T. (1999). Long-term effects of aerobic exercise on psychological outcomes. Preventive Medicine, 28, 75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dimsdale, J. E., & Moss, J. (1980). Plasma catecholamines in stress and exercise. Journal of the American Medical Association, 243, 340–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dinas, P. C., Koutedakis, Y., & Flouris, A. D. (2011). Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 180, 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dishman, R. K., & O’Commor, J. P. (2009). Lessons in exercise neurobiology: The case of endorphins. Mental Health Physical Activity, 2(1), 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duncker, D. J., & Bache, R. J. (2008). Regulation of coronary blood flow during exercise. Physiological Reviews, 88(3), 1009–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ekeland, E., Heian, F., & Hagen, K. B. (2005). Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 792–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fibiger, W., & Singer, G. (1984). Physiological changes during physical and psychological stress. Australian Journal of Psychology, 36, 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. FitzGerald, S. J., Barlow, C. E., Kampert, J. B., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., & Blair, S. N. (2004). Muscular fitness and all-cause mortality: Prospective observations. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 1, 7–18.Google Scholar
  38. Fixx, J. F. (1977). The complete book of running. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  39. Fletcher, G. F., Balady, G., Blair, S. N., Blumenthal, J., Caspersen, C., & Chaitman, B., Pollock, M. L. (1996). Statement on exercise: Benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: A statement for health professionals by the committee on exercise and cardiac rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation, 94, 857–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foss, M. L., & Keteyian, S. J. (1998). Fox’s physiological basis for exercise and sport (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  41. Fradkin, A. J., Gabbe, B. J., & Cameron, P. A. (2006). Does warming up prevent injury in sport?:The evidence from randomised controlled trials? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(3), 214–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gale, C. R., Martyn, C. N., Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2007). Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(1), 228–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ganong, W. F. (2005). Review of medical physiology (22nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  44. Garber, C. E., Blissmer, B., Deschernes, M. R., Franklin, B. A., Lamonte, M. J., Lee, I.-M., & Swain, D. P. (2011). Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(7), 1334–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gellhorn, E. (1958a). The physiological basis of neuromuscular relaxation. Archives of Internal Medicine, 102, 392–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gellhorn, E. (1964a). Motion and emotion. Psychological Review, 71, 457–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gellhorn, E. (1967). Principles of autonomic-somatic integrations. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  48. Gill, A., Womack, R., & Safranek, S. (2010). Does exercise alleviate symptoms of depression? The Journal of Family Practice, 59(9), 530–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Greco, T. P., Conti-Kelly, A. M., Anthony, J. R., Greco, T., Jr., Doyle, R., & Boisen, M., Lopez, L. R., (2010). Oxidized-LDL/β2-Glycoprotein I complexes are ssociated with disease severity and increased risk for adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 133, 737–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Green, H. (1986). Fit for America: Health, fitness, sport, and American society. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  51. Greenberg, J. S., Dintiman, G. B., & Myers-Oakes, B. (1998). Physical fitness and wellness (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  52. Haskell, W. L. (1995). Physical activity in the prevention and management of coronary heart disease. Physical Activity and Fitness Research Digest, 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
  53. Haskell, W. L., Lee, I.-M, Pate, R. P., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendations for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 10811093.Google Scholar
  54. Herman, S., Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M., Khatri, P., Craighead, W. E., Krishnan, K. R. & Doraiswamy, P. M. (2002). Exercise therapy for depression in middle-aged and older adults: Predictors of early dropout and treatment failure. Health Psychology, 21, 553–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoch, F., Werle, E., & Weicker, H. (1988). Sympathoadrenergic regulation in elite fencers in training and competition. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 9, 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoffman, B. M., Babyak, M. A., Craighead, W. E., Sherwood, A., Doraiswamy, P. M., Coons, M. J., & Blumenthal, J. A. (2010). Exercise and pharmacotherapy in patients with major depression: One-year follow-up of the SMILE study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73, 127–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howard, R. A., Freedman, D. M., Park, Y., Hollenbeck, A., Schatzkin, A., & Letizman, M. F. (2008). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and the risk of colon and rectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes & Control, 19(9), 939–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jacobson, E. (1978). You must relax. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  59. Jahnke, R., Larkey, L., Rogers, C., Etnier, J., & Lin, F. (2010). A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. American Journal of Health Promotion, 52(2), 211–216.Google Scholar
  60. Janer, G., & Kogevinas, M. (2008). Promoting physical activity and a healthy diet among working women. In A. Linos & K. Wilhem (Eds.), Promoting health for working women (pp. 319–332). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knols, R., Aaronson, N. K., Uebelhart, D., Fransen, J., & Aufdemkampe. (2005). Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: A systematic review of randomized and controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(6), 3830–3842Google Scholar
  62. Kodama, S., Tanaka, S., Saito, K., Shu, M., Sone, Y., Onitake, F., Sone, H. (2007). Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(10), 999–1008.Google Scholar
  63. Kohrt, W. M., Bloomfield, S. A., Little, K. D., Nelson, M. E., & Uingling, V. R. (2004). American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand: Physical activity and bone health. Medical Science and Sports Exercise, 36(11), 1985–1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Krantz, D. S., Quigley, J. F., & O’Callahan, M. (2001). Mental stress as a trigger of acute cardiac events: The role of laboratory studies. Italian Heart Journal: Official Journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology, 2(12), 895–899.Google Scholar
  65. Kraus, H., & Raab, W. (1961). Hypokinetic disease. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  66. Laaksonen, M., Talala, K., Martelin, T., Rahkonen, O., Roos, E., Helakorpi, S., … Prättälä, R. (2008). Health behaviors as explanations for educational level differences in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: A follow-up of 60,000 men and women over 23 years. The European Joural of Public Health, 18(1), 38–43Google Scholar
  67. Laugero, K. D., Smilowitz, J. T., German, J. B., Jarcho, M. R., Mendoza, S. P., & Bales, K. L. (2011). Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acides, 84, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Legrand, F., & Heuze, J. P. (2007). Antidepressant effects associated with different exercise conditions in participants with depression: A pilot study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 348–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Li, Y., Devault, C. N., & Van Oteghen, S. (2007). Effects of extended tai chi intervention on balance and selected motor functions of the elderly. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 35(3), 383–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lovallo, W. R. (2005). Stress & health: Biological and psychological interactions (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Lundberg, U. (2005). Stress hormones in health and illness: The roles of work and gender. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 1017–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mastorakos, G., Pavlatou, M., Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., & Chrousos, G. P. (2005). Exercise and the stress system. Hormones, 4(2), 73–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Aerobic exercise: How to warm up and cool down. Retreived June 8, 2011
  74. McCabe, P., & Schneiderman, N. (1984). Psychophysiologic reactions to stress. In N. Schneiderman & J. Tapp (Eds.), Behavioral medicine (pp. 3–32). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  75. McGuigan, F. J., & Lehrer, P. M. (2007). Progressive relaxation: Origins, principles, and clinical applications. In P. M. Lehrer, R. L. Woolfolk, & W. E. Sime (Eds.), Principles and practices of stress management (3rd ed., pp. 57–87). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  76. Mead, G. E., Morley, W., Campbell, P., Greig, C. A., McMurdo, M., & Lawlor, D. A. (2009). Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3. Art. No.:CD004366.Google Scholar
  77. Miller, D. K., & Allen, T. E. (1995). Fitness: A lifetime commitment (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  78. Mokdad, A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., & Gerberding, J. L. (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 1238–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mokdad, A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., & Gerberding, J. L. (2005). Correction: Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3), 293–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mutrie, N., Campbell, A. M., Whyte, F., McConnachie, A., Emslie, C., Lee, L., … Ritchie, D. (2007). Benefits of supervised programme for women being treated for early stage breast cancer: Pragmatic randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 334, 517Google Scholar
  81. National Center for Health Statistics. (2011). Health, United States, 2011: With special feature on socioeconomic and health. Hyattsville, MDGoogle Scholar
  82. Nesse, R. M., Bhatnager, S., & Young E. A. (2007). Evolutionary origins and functions of the stress response. Encyclopedia of Stress (2 nd ed.), 1, 965–970Google Scholar
  83. Olgac, U., Knight, K., Poulikakos, D., Saur, S. C., Alkadhi, H., Desbiolles, L. M., Cattin, P. C., & Kurtcuoglu, V. (2011). Computed high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein correlate with plaque locations in human coronary arteries. Journal of Biomechanics, 44(13), 2466–2471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ettinger, W., Heath, G. W., King, A. C., Kriska, A., Leon, A. S., Marcus, B. H., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R. S., Partrick, K., Pollock, M. L., Rippe, J. M., Sallis, J., & Wilmore, J. H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Penninx, B. W., Rejeski, W. J., Pandya, J., Miller, M. E., Di Bari, M., Appelgate, W. B., & Pahor, M. (2002). Exercise and depressive symptoms: A comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 57B(2), P124–P132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Puetz, T. W. (2006). Physical activity and feelings of energy and fatigue: Epidemiological evidence. Sports Medicince, 36(9), 767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rejeski, W. J., & Thompson, A. (1993). Historical and conceptual roots of exercise psychology. In P. Seraganian (Ed.), Exercise psychology: The influence of physical exercise on psychological processes (pp. 3–35). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. Ribisl, P. (1984). Developing an exercise prescription for health. In N. Miller, J. D. Matarazzo, S. W. Weiss, A. J. Herd, & S. M. Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral health (pp. 448–466). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Roux, L., Pratt, M., Tnegs, T. O., Yore, M. M., Yanagawa, T. L., Van Den Bos, J., … Buchner, D. M. (2008). Cost effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(6), 578–588Google Scholar
  90. Ryan, A. (1974). A history of sports medicine. In A. Ryan & F. Allman (Eds.), Sports medicine (pp. 1–3). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  91. Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2011). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  92. Schreurs, K. M. G., Veehof, M. M., Passade, L., & Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M. R. (2011). Behavior Research and Therapy, 49(12), 908–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schuch, F. B., Vasconcelos-Moreno, M. P., & Fleck, M. P. (2011). The impact of exercise on quality of life within exercise and depression trials: A systematic review. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 4(2), 43–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seraganian, P. (1993). Exercise psychology: The influence of physical exercise on psychological processes. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  95. Shahidi, M., Mojtahed, A., Modabbernia, A., Motjahed, M., Shafiabady, A., Delavar, A., & Honari, H. (2011). Laughter Yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 322–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sharkey, B. J. (1990). Physiology of fitness (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  97. Sigal, R. J., Kenny, G. P., Boulé, N. G., Wells, G. A., Prud’homme, D., Fortier, M., … Jaffey, J. (2007). Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147(6), 357–369Google Scholar
  98. Sillanpää, E., Laaksonen, D. E., Häkkinen, A., Karavirta, L., Jensen, B., Kraemer, W. J., … Häkkinen, K. (2009). Body composition, fitness, and metabolic health during strength and endurance training and their combination in middle-aged and older women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(2), 285–296Google Scholar
  99. Sime, W. (1984). Psychological benefits of exercise training in the healthy individual. In J. Matarazzo, S. Weiss, J. Heid, N. Miller, & S. Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral health (pp. 488–508). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Simon, H. B., & Levisohn, S. R. (1987). The athlete within: A personal guide to total fitness. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  101. Smith, J. C. (2002). Stress management: A comprehensive handbook of techniques and strategies. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  102. Smits, J. A., Berry, A. C., Rosenfield, D., Powers, M. B., Behar, E., & Ott, M. W. (2008). Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 689–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smits, J. A., Tart, C. D., Rosenfield, D., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2011). The interplay between physical activity and anxiety sensitivity in fearful responding to carbon dioxide challenge. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(6), 498–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Suominen, H. (2006). Muscle training for bone strength. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 18(2), 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Trivedi, M. H., Greer, T. L., Church, T. S., Carmody, T. J., Grannemann, B. D., Galper, D. I., … Blair, S. N. (2011). Exercise as an augmentation treatment for nonremitted major depression disorder: A randomized, parallel dose comparison. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(5), 677–684Google Scholar
  106. Tuson, K. M., & Sinyor, D. (1993). On the affective benefits of acute exercise: Taking stock after twenty years of research. In P. Seraganian (Ed.), Exercise psychology: The influence of physical exercise on psychological processes (pp. 80–121). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  107. Valenti, M., Porzio, G., Ailli, F., Verna, L., Cannita, K., Manno, R., … Ficorella, C. (2008). Physical exercise and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(1), 24–28Google Scholar
  108. Van Domelen, D. R., Koster, A., Caserotti, P., Brychta, R. J., Chen, K. Y., McClain, J. J., & Harris, T. B. (2011). Employment and physical activity in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 136–145Google Scholar
  109. Vuori, I. (2010). Physical activity and cardiovascular disease prevention in Europe: An update. Kinesiology, 42(1), 5–15.Google Scholar
  110. Warburton, D. E. R., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weller, D., & Everly, G. S., Jr. (1985). Occupational health through physical fitness programming. In G. S. Everly & R. Feldman (Eds.), Occupational health promotion (pp. 127–146). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  112. Weyerer, S., & Kupfer, B. (1994). Physical exercise and psychological health. Sports Medicine, 17, 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilmore, J. H., Costill, D. L., & Kenney, W. L. (2008). Physiology of sport and exercise (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  114. World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Genenva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  115. World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). Physical inactivity: A global public health problem. Retrieved from
  116. Yohannes, A. M., & Caton, S. (2010). Management of depression in older people with osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 14(6), 637–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yonezawa, R., Masuda, T., Matsunaga, A., Takahashi, Y., Saitoh, M., Ishii, A., … Izumi, T. (2009). Effects of phase II cardiac rehabilitation on job stress and health-related quality of life after return to work in middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction. International Heart Journal, 50, 279–290.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • George S. EverlyJr.
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Lating
    • 2
  1. 1.School of MedicineThe Johns Hopkins UniversitySeverna ParkUSA
  2. 2.Loyola University MaylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations