• George S. EverlyJr.
  • Jeffrey M. Lating


Chapter 9 provided a rationale for the use of the relaxation response in the treatment of stress-related disorders. We now explore several techniques used to create the relaxation response. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a clinically relevant introduction to meditation.


Anterior Cingulated Cortex Mindfulness Meditation Relaxation Response Meditative Practice Meditative Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aftanas, L. I., & Golocheikine, S. A. (2002). Non-linear dynamic complexity of the human EEG during meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 330, 143–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, J. (2000). Meditation meets behavioural medicine: The story of experimental research on meditation. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7, 17–73.Google Scholar
  3. Ando, M., Morita, T. Akechi, T., Ito, S. Tanaka, M., Ifuku, Y., & Nakayama, T. (2009). The efficacy of mindfulness-based meditation therapy on anxiety, depression, and spirituality in Japanese patients with cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(12), 1091–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arambula, P., Pepper, E., Kawakami, M., & Gibney, K. H. (2001). The physiological correltate of Kundalini Yoga meditation: A study of a Yoga master. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 26, 142–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Astin, J. A. (1997). Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences. Psychotherapy and Psychosomalics, 66(2), 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Austin, J. H. (1998). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, J. H. (2006). Zen-brain reflections. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Baeretsen, K. B., Stödkilde-Jörgensen, H., Sommerlund, B. Hartmann, T., Damsgaard-Madsen, J., Fosnæs, M., & Green, A. C. (2010). An investigation of brain processes supporting meditation. Cognitive Processing, 11, 57–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B., & Nahin, R. L. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2007. National Health Statistics Report, 12, 1–24.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, P., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., & Nahin, R. (2002). CDC advance data report #343: Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government.Google Scholar
  11. Barnes, V., Schneider, R., Alexander, C., & Staggers, F. (1997). Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans: An update and review. Journal of the National Medical Association, 7, 464–476.Google Scholar
  12. Benson, H. (1975). The relaxation response. New York, NY: Morrow.Google Scholar
  13. Benson, H. (1985). Beyond the relaxation response: How to harness the healing power of your personal beliefs. New York, NY: Berkley Books.Google Scholar
  14. Benson, H. (1996). Timeless healing: The power and biology of belief. New York, NY: Scribner.Google Scholar
  15. Benson, H. (with Klipper, M. Z.) (2000). The relaxation response. New York, NY: HarperCollinsGoogle Scholar
  16. Benson, H., Beary, J., & Carol, M. (1974). The relaxation response. Psychiatry, 37, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Benson, H., & Stuart, E. (1993). The wellness book. New York, NY: Fireside.Google Scholar
  18. Bevan, A. J. W. (1980). Endocrine changes in transcendental meditation. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 7(1), 75–76.Google Scholar
  19. Birnie, K., Garland, S. N., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Psycho-Oncology, 19(9), 1004–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Black, D. S., Milam, J., & Sussman, S. (2009). Sitting-meditation interventions among youth: A review of treatment efficacy. Pediatrics, 124(3), e532–e541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Braboszcz, C., Hahusseau, S., & Delorme, A. (2010). Meditation and neuroscience: From basic research to clinical practice. In R. Carlstedt (Ed.), Integrative clinical psychology, psychiatry and behavioral medicine: Perspectives, practices and research (pp. 1910–1929). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 11483–11488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brennan, D., & Stevens, J. (1998). A grounded theory approach towards understanding the self perceived effects of meditation on people being treated for cancer. The Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 5(2), 20–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brooks, J. (1994). The application of Maharishi Ayur-Veda to mental health and substance abuse treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11(3–4), 395–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, L. F., Davis, L. W., LaRocco, V. A., & Strasburger, A. (2010). Participant perspectives on mindfulness meditation training for anxiety in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 13(3), 224–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bruce, A., & Davies, B. (2005). Mindfulness in hospice care: Practicing meditation-in-action. Qualitative Health Research, 15, 1329–1344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Buckner, R. L., & Carroll, D. C. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burns, J. L., Lee, R. M., & Brown, L. J. (2011). The effect of meditation on self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in a college population. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 25(2), 132–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Buselli, E. F., & Stuart, E. M. (1999). Influence of psychosocial factors and biopsychosocial interventions on outcomes after myocardial infarction. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 13(3), 60–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cahn, B. R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging ­studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 180–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Capra, F. (1975). The tao of physics. Boulder, CO: Shambala.Google Scholar
  32. Carlson, L. E., Speca, M., Patel, K. D., & Goodey, E. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and melatonin in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 448–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239–1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coppola, F., & Spector, D. (2009). Natural stress relief meditation as a tool for reducing anxiety and increasing self-actualization. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(3), 307–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cortright, B. (1997). Psychotherapy and spirit: Theory and practice in transpersonal psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  37. Cresswell, J. D., Myers, H. F., Cole, S. W., & Irwin, M. R. (2009). Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(2), 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Creswell, J. D., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural correlates of disositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 560–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson, J. (1976). The physiology of meditation and mystical states of consciousness. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 19, 345–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Davidson, R. J. (2004). Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioral ­correlates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 359(1449), 1395–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S., Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunn, B. R., Hartigan, J. A., & Mikulas, W. L. (1999). Concentration and mindfulness meditations: Unique forms of consciousness? Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 24, 147–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fortney, L., & Taylor, M. (2010). Meditation in medical practice: A review of the evidence and practice. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 37, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fountoulakis, K. N., Giannakopoulos, P., Kovari, E., & Bouras, C. (2008). Assessing the role of cingulate cortex in bipolar disorder: Neuropathological, structural and functional imaging data. Brain Research Reviews, 59, 9–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gaston, L., Crombez, J. C., & Dupuis, G. (1989). An imagery and meditation technique in the treatment of psoriasis: A case study using an A-B-A design. Journal of Mental Imagery, 13(1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  46. Gawler, I. (1998). The creative power of imagery: Specific techniques for people affected by ­cancer. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 19(1), 17–30.Google Scholar
  47. Gelderloos, P., Walton, K. G., Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Alexander, C. N. (1991). Effectiveness of the transcendental meditation program in preventing a substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions, 26(3), 293–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gellhorn, E., & Kiely, W. (1972). Mystical states of consciousness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 154, 399–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glueck, G., & Stroebel, C. (1975). Biofeedback and meditation in the treatment of psychiatric illness. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16, 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Glueck, B., & Stroebel, C. (1978). Psychophysiological correlates of relaxation. In A. Sugerman & R. Tarter (Eds.), Expanding dimensions of consciousness (pp. 99–129). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10, 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldin, P. R., Ramel, W., & Gross, J. J. (2009). Mindfulness meditation training and self-referential processing in Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioral and neural effects. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 23(3), 242–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grant, J. A., Courtemanche, J., Duerden, E. G., Duncan, G. H., & Rainville, P. (2010). Cortical thickness and pain sensitivity in Zen meditators. Emotion, 10, 43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harenski, C. L., & Hamann, S. (2006). Neural correlates of regulation negative emotions related to moral violations. NeuroImage, 30, 313–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hart, J. (2007). Clinical applications for meditation: A review and recommendations. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 13(1), 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011a). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research, 191, 36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Bago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011b). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hölzel, B. K., Ott, U., Hempel, H., Hackl, A., Wolf, K., Stark, R., & Vaitl, D. (2007). Differential engagement of anterior cingulated and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and nonmeditators. Neuroscience Letters, 421, 16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hussain, D., & Bhushan, B. (2010). Psychology of meditation and health: Present status and future directions. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10(3), 439–451.Google Scholar
  60. Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I., & Schwartz, G. E. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jevning, R., Wallace, R. K., & Beidebach, M. (1992). The physiology of meditation: A review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 16, 415–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jha, A. P., Stanley, E. A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., & Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10, 54–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Joseph, M. (1998). The effect of strong religious beliefs on coping with stress. Stress Medicine, 14, 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Fill catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  65. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1993). Mindfulness meditation: Health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice. In D. Coleman &J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind–body medicine: How to use your mind for better health (pp. 259–275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.Google Scholar
  66. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L. G., Fletcher, K. E., Pbert, L., Santorelli, S. F. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 936–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kabat-Zinn.J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M.J., Cropley, T. G., Bernhard, J. D. (1998). Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 60(5), 625–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kaplan, K. H., Goldenberg, D. L., & Galvin-Nadeau, M. (1993). The impact of a meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. General Hospital Psychiatry, 15(5), 284–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kesterson, J., & Clinch, N. F. (1989). Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio and apneas during meditation. American Journal of Physiology, 256(3, Pt. 2), R632-R638.Google Scholar
  71. Kimbrough, E., Magyari, T., Langenberg, P., Chesney, M., & Berman, B. (2010). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 17–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kristeller, J., & Hallett, B. C. (1999). An exploratory study of a meditation-based intervention for binge eating disorder. Journal of Health Psychology, 4(3), 357–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kutz, I., Borysenko, J., & Benson, H. (1985). Meditation and psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treatdway, M. T., & Fischl, B. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. NeuroReport, 16, 1893–1897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R. (1984). Are stress reduction techniques interchangable, or do they specific effects? In R. Woolfolk & P. Lehrer (Eds.), Principles and practice of stress management (pp. 404–477). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  76. Luders, E., Toga, A. W., Lepore, N., & Gaser, C. (2009). The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter. NeuroImage, 45, 672–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lush, E., Salmon, P., Floyd, A., Studts, J. L., Weissbecker, I., & Sephton, S. E. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for symptom reduction in fibromyalgia: Psychophysiological correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16(2), 200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Matousek, R. H., & Dobkin, P. L. (2010). Weathering storms: A cohort study of how participation in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program benefits women after breast cancer treatment. Current Oncology, 17(4), 62–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mazzoli, M. (2011). Complementary tinnitus therapies. In A. R. Møller, B. Langguth, D. De Ridder, & T. Kleinjung (Eds.) Textbook of tinnitus (pp. 733–747). New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  80. Miller, J. J., Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17(3), 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mohan, A., Sharma, R., & Bijlani, R. L. (2011). Effect of meditation on stress-induced changes in cognitive functions. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(3), 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moyer, C. A., Donnelly, M. P. W., Anderson, J. C., Valek, K. C., Huckaby, S. J., Wiederholt, D. A., … Rice, B. L. (2011). Frontal electroencephalographic asymmetry associated with positive emotion is produced by very brief meditation training. Psychological Science, 22(10), 1277–1279Google Scholar
  83. Murphy, M., & Donovan, S. (1988). The physical and psychological effects of meditation (2nd ed.). San Rafael, CA: Esalen Institute Study of Exceptional Functioning.Google Scholar
  84. Naranjo, C., & Ornstein, R. (1971). On the psychology of meditation. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  85. NCCAM (2010). Meditation: An introduction. Retrieved from:
  86. Olendzki, A. (2009). Mindfulness and meditation. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 37–44). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Orme-Johnson, D., & Farrow, J. (1978). Scientific research on the transcendental meditation program [Collected paper]. New York: Maharishi International University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Ornstein, R. E. (1972). The psychology of consciousness. Oxford, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  89. Ospina, M. B., Bond, K, Karkhaneh, M., Tjosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., Liang, Y., … Klassen, T. P. Meditation practices for health: state of the research.Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (Full Report) 2007. 1–263Google Scholar
  90. Öst, L. G. (1997). Rapid treatment of specific phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research, and treatment (pp. 227–247). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  91. Passarotti, A. M., Sweeney, J. A., & Pavuluri, M. N. (2010). Emotion processing influences working memory circuits in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 1064–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Plews-Ogan, M., Owens, J. E., Goodman, M., Wolfe, P., & Schorling, J. (2005). A pilot study evaluating mindfulness-based stress reduction and massage for the management of chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(12), 1136–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pradhan, E. K., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B. Gilpin, A. K., Magyari, T., … Berman, B. M. (2007) Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care & Research, 57, 11341142Google Scholar
  94. Rahul, A. G., & Joseph, M. I. (2009). Influence of meditation on anxiety. Indian Journal of Community Psychology, 5(2), 228–234.Google Scholar
  95. Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive process and affect in patients with past deparession. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 433–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosenzweig, S., Greeson, J. M., Reibel, D. K., Green, J. S., Jasser, S. A., & Beasley, D. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain conditions: Variation in treatment outcomes and role of home meditation practice. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Edman, J. S., Jasser, S. A., McMearty, K. D., & Goldstein, B. J. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study. Alternative Therapies, 13(5), 36–38.Google Scholar
  98. Rubia, K. (2009). The neurobiology of meditation and its clinical effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychology, 82, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sarang, P. S., & Telles, S. (2006). Oxygen consumption and respiration during and after two yoga relaxation techniques. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(2), 143–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sethi, A. S. (1989). Meditation as an intervention in stress reactivity. New York: American Management Services Press.Google Scholar
  101. Shapiro, D. H. (1978). Precision nirvana. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  102. Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shapiro, D. H., & Walsh, R. N. (Eds.). (1984). Meditation: Classic and contemporary perspectives. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, W. P., Compton, W. C., & West, W. B. (1995). Meditation as an adjunct to a happiness enhancement program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 269–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith, J. E., Richardson, J., Hoffman, C., & Pilkington, K. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 315–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sothers, K., & Anchor, K. (1989). Prevention and treatment of essential hypertension with meditation-related methods. Medical Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 2, 137–156.Google Scholar
  107. Tácon, A. M. (2003). Meditation as a complementary therapy in cancer. Family Community Health, 26(1), 64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tácon, A. M., McComb, J., Caldera, Y., & Randolph, P. (2003). Mindfulness meditation, anxiety reduction, and heart disease. A pilot study. Family Community Health, 26, 25–33.Google Scholar
  109. Tang, Y. Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 15649–15652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Telles, S., Reddy, S. K., & Nagendra, H. R. (2000). Oxygen Consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25(4), 221–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wachholtz, A. B., & Pargament, K. I. (2008). Migraines and meditation: Does spirituality matter? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(4), 351–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Waelde, L. C., Uddo, M., Marquett, R., Ropelato, M., Freightman, S., Pardo, A., & Salazar, J. (2008). A pilot study of meditation for mental health workers following Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(5), 497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Walsh, R. (1996). Meditation research: The state of the art. In B. Scotton, A. Chinen, & J. Battista (Eds.), Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology (pp. 167–175). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  114. Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 227–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Young, L. A., & Baime, M. J. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction: Effect on emotional distress in older adults. Complementary Health Practice Review, 15(2), 59–64.Google Scholar
  116. Zamarra, J. W., Schneider, R. H., Besseghini, I., Robinson, D. K., & Salerno, J. W. (1996). Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 77(10), 867–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zautra, A. J., Davis, M. C., Reich, J. W., Nicassario, P., Tennen, H., Finan, P., … Irwin, M. R. (2008). Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(3), 408–421Google Scholar
  118. Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Gordon, N. S., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Effects of brief and sham mindfulness meditation on mood and cardiovascular variables. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(8), 867–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., Zuelsdorff, M., Coe, C., Miller, M., & Fleming, M. (2008). Mindfulness meditation for alcohol relapse prevention: A feasibility pilot study. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2(3), 165–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zylowska, L., Ackerman, D. L., Yang, M. H., Futrell, J. L., Horton, N. L., Hale, T. S., … Smalley, S. L. (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(6), 737–746Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • George S. EverlyJr.
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Lating
    • 2
  1. 1.School of MedicineThe Johns Hopkins UniversitySeverna ParkUSA
  2. 2.Loyola University MaylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations