Understanding Community Perspectives: A Step Towards Achieving Food Marketing Equity

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines how historical and social factors impact community perspectives, receptivity, and potential motivation to improve food marketing environments. We explore the diversity of African Americans’ perspectives of marketing and the contextual factors that support different beliefs and responses. Given the nature and history of Black Americans as consumers, it is no surprise that de-marketing unhealthy food and beverages proves to be quite challenging. Insights from the community perspective are necessary in order to develop social and counter-marketing activities to support healthy food environments.

Keywords

Sugar Obesity Amid Income Marketing 

References

  1. Aaker, J. L., Brumbaugh, A. M., & Grier, S. A. (2000). Nontarget markets and viewer distinctiveness: The impact of target marketing on advertising attitudes. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(3), 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Marketing Association (2007). “AMA Definition of Marketing,” Retrieved from September 20, 2012, http://www.marketingpower.com/Community/ARC/Pages/Additional/Definition/default.aspx].
  3. Appiah, O. (2001). Ethnic identification on adolescents’ evaluations of advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research (Vol. 41, p. 7): Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Appiah, O. (2004). Effects of ethnic identification on web browsers’ attitudes toward and navigational patterns on race-targeted sites. Communication Research, 31(3), 312–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachman, K. (2010). Multicultural Ad spend fared better in ’09. Mediaweek. Retrieved from http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/content_display/news/media-agencies-research/e3i888c20be761d1d659a7ad31dc4dc5c0c.
  6. Bagozzi, R. P., Wong, N., Abe, S., & Bergami, M. (2000). Cultural and situational contingencies and the theory of reasoned action: Application to fast food restaurant consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birch, L. L. (1999). Development of food preferences. Annual Review of Nutrition, 19, 41–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Branchik, B. J., & Davis, J. F. (2009). Marketplace activism. Journal of Macromarketing, 29(1), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant, C. A., Brown, K. R., McDermott, R. J., Forthofer, M. S., Bumpus, E. C., Calkins, S. A., et al. (2007). Community-based prevention marketing: Organizing a community for health behavior intervention. Health Promotion Practice, 8(2), 154–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caprio, S., Daniels, S. R., Drewnowski, A., Kaufman, F. R., Palinkas, L. A., Rosenbloom, A. L., et al. (2008). Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: Implications for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care, 31(11), 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers, J. (2006). Equal in every way: African Americans, consumption and materialism from reconstruction to the civil rights movement. Advertising & Society Review, 7(1).Google Scholar
  12. Cialdini, R. B., Kallgren, C., & Reno, R. (1991). A focus theory of normative conduct – A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human-behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 201–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crockett, D., & Wallendorf, M. (2004). The role of normative political ideology in consumer behavior. The Journal of Consumer Research, 31(3), 511–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daniels, S. R. (2006). The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Denegri-Knott, J., Zwick, D., & Schroeder, J. E. (2006). Mapping consumer power: An integrative framework for marketing and consumer research. European Journal of Marketing, 40(9/10), 950–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deschenes, S., McLaughlin, M., & Newman, A. (2008). Community organizing and youth advocacy. New Directions for Youth Development (117), 1–4.Google Scholar
  17. Dietz, W. H., Bland, M. G., Gortmaker, S. L., Molloy, M., & Schmid, T. L. (2002). Policy tools for the childhood obesity epidemic. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 30(3 Suppl), 83–87.Google Scholar
  18. Drewnowski, A. (2009). Obesity, diets, and social inequalities. Nutrition Reviews, 67(Suppl 1), S36–S39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Economos, C. D., Brownson, R. C., DeAngelis, M. A., Novelli, P., Foerster, S. B., Foreman, C. T., et al. (2001). What lessons have been learned from other attempts to guide social change? Nutrition Review, 59(3 Pt 2), S40–S56. discussion S57–S65.Google Scholar
  20. Escobar-Chaves, S. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2008). Media and risky behaviors. The Future of Children, 18(1), 147–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  22. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Fitzgibbon, M. L., Stolley, M. R., Schiffer, L. A., Braunschweig, C. L., Gomez, S. L., Van Horn, L., et al. (2011). Hip-Hop to Health Jr. obesity prevention effectiveness trial: Postintervention results. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19(5), 994–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Curtin, L. R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(3), 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frey, W. (2003). Married with children. American Demographics, 25, 17–19.Google Scholar
  26. Gortmaker, S. L., Must, A., Sobol, A. M., Peterson, K., Colditz, G. A., & Dietz, W. H. (1996). Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150(4), 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green, C. L. (1995). Differential responses to retail sales promotion among African-American and Anglo-American consumers. Journal of Retailing, 71(1), 83–92. doi: 10.1016/0022-4359(95)90014-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grier, S. (2009). African American & Hispanic youth vulnerability to target marketing: Implications for understanding the effects of digital marketing. Berkeley, CA: NPLAN Marketing to Children Learning Community.Google Scholar
  30. Grier, S. A., & Brumbaugh, A. M. (1999). Noticing cultural differences: Ad meanings created by target and non-target markets. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 79.Google Scholar
  31. Grier, S. A., & Kumanyika, S. K. (2008). The context for choice: Health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 98(9), 1616–1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grier, S. A., & Kumanyika, S. (2010). Targeted marketing and public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 349–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grier, S. A., Mensinger, J. L., Huang, S. H., Kumanyika, S. K., & Stettler, N. (2007). Fast food marketing and children’s fast food consumption: Exploring parental influences in an ethnically diverse sample. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 26(2), 221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grocery Manufacturer. (1971). Negro consumers are waiting. In G. Joyce & N. Govoni (Eds.), The Black consumer: Dimensions of behavior and strategy (pp. 49–59). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  35. Harris, J. L., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Fast food F.A.C.T.S.: Evaluating fast food nutrition and marketing to youth. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.Google Scholar
  36. Harrison, K. (2006). Fast and sweet: Nutritional attributes of television food advertisements with and without Black characters. Howard Journal of Communications, 17(4), 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hillier, A., Cole, B. L., Smith, T. E., Yancey, A. K., Williams, J. D., Grier, S. A., et al. (2009). Clustering of unhealthy outdoor advertisements around child-serving institutions: A comparison of three cities. Health Place, 15(4), 935–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoek, J., & Gendall, P. (2006). Advertising and obesity: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 409–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hornik, R. (2002). Exposure: Theory and evidence about all the ways it matters. Social Marketing Quarterly, 8(3), 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Humphreys, J. M. (2006). The multicultural economy 2006 (Vol. 66, No. 3). Atlanta: The University of Georgia, Selig Center for Economic Growth.Google Scholar
  41. Humphries, J. M. (2012). The multicultural economy 2012 report. University of Georgia Selig Center for Economic Growth.Google Scholar
  42. Institute of Medicine. (2005). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Retrieved from Citation http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11514.html.
  43. James, D. (2004). Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related attitudes among African Americans: Application of a culturally sensitive model. Ethnicity and Health, 9(4), 349–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khan, M. A. (2009). Coca-Cola debuts ambitious mobile push for Sprite. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://www.dmnews.com/Coca-Cola-debuts-ambitious-mobile-push-for-Sprite/article/95828/.
  45. Kotler, P. (1997). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control (9th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  46. Kumanyika, S. K., Whitt-Glover, M. C., Gary, T. L., Prewitt, T. E., Odoms-Young, A. M., Banks-Wallace, J., et al. (2007). Expanding the obesity research paradigm to reach African American communities. Preventing Chronic Disease, 4(4), A112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lamont, M., & Molnár, V. (2001). How Blacks use consumption to shape their collective identity. Journal of Consumer Culture, 1(1), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindau, S. T., Makelarski, J. A., Chin, M. H., Desautels, S., Johnson, D., Johnson, W. E., Jr., et al. (2011). Building community-engaged health research and discovery infrastructure on the South Side of Chicago: Science in service to community priorities. Preventive Medicine, 52(3–4), 200–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacArthur, K., & Neff, J. (2004). Sprite shifts gears in quest for street cred. Advertising Age, 75(4).Google Scholar
  50. Madsen, K. A., Weedn, A. E., & Crawford, P. B. (2010). Disparities in peaks, plateaus, and declines in prevalence of high BMI among adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(3), 434–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McDonalds Corporation. What is McDonald’s 365 Black? Retrieved May 29, 2009, from http://www.365black.com/365black/whatis.jsp.
  52. Mello, M. M., Studdert, D. M., & Brennan, T. A. (2006). Obesity–The new frontier of public health law. The New England Journal of Medicine, 354(24), 2601–2610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Millstein, R., & Sallis, J. (2011). Youth advocacy for obesity prevention: The next wave of social change for health. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1–9.Google Scholar
  54. Montgomery, K. C., & Chester, J. (2009). Interactive food and beverage marketing: Targeting adolescents in the digital age. The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 45(3), S18–S29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mullins, P. R. (1999). Race and the Genteel consumer: Class and African-American consumption, 1850–1930. Historical Archaeology, 33(1), 22–38.Google Scholar
  56. Nielsen. (2008). Advertising spending targeting African-Americans exceeds $2.3B a year. Marketing Charts. Retrieved from http://www.marketingcharts.com/television/advertising-spending-targeting-african-americans-exceeds-23b-a-year-3243/.
  57. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., Lamb, M. M., & Flegal, K. M. (2010). Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(3), 242–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2008). High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(20), 2401–2405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Powell, L. M., Szczypka, G., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2007). Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(4 Suppl), S251–S256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Radio Advertising Bureau. Pepsi pumps the vibe on the streets Retrieved March 8th, 2010, from http://www.rab.com/public/ncs/pdfs/pepsi.pdf.
  61. Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8–18 year olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, R. G. (2005). Community development model for public health applications: Overview of a model to eliminate population disparities. Health Promotion Practice, 6(3), 338–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Matheson, D. M., Haskell, W. L., et al. (2003). Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: The Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease, 13(1 Suppl 1), S65–S77.Google Scholar
  64. Schwarte, L., Samuels, S. E., Capitman, J., Ruwe, M., Boyle, M., & Flores, G. (2010). The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: Changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California’s heartland. American Journal of Public Health, 100(11), 2124–2128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Story, M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & French, S. (2002). Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(3 Suppl), S40–S51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Swinburn, B., Gill, T., & Kumanyika, S. (2005). Obesity prevention: A proposed framework for translating evidence into action. Obesity Reviews, 6(1), 23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tessler Lindau, S., Makelarski, J. A., Chin, M. H., Desautels, S., Johnson, D., Johnson, W. E., Jr., et al. (2011). Building community-engaged health research and discovery infrastructure on the South Side of Chicago: Science in service to community priorities. Preventive Medicine, 52(3–4), 200–207.Google Scholar
  68. Tharp, M. (2001). Marketing and consumer identity in multicultural America. Thousand Oakes: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. The Nielsen Company. (2009). Nielsen projects older, multi-cultural, and low-income consumers driving consumer packaged goods trends in 2020. Retrieved May 12, 2009.Google Scholar
  70. Wandersman, A. (2003). Community science: Bridging the gap between science and practice with community-centered models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3–4), 227–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang, Y., & Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States – Gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiological Review, mxm007.Google Scholar
  72. Wang, Y., Beydoun, M. A., Liang, L., Caballero, B., & Kumanyika, S. K. (2008). Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity, 16(10), 2323–2330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Warner, Melanie (2006). “Salads or No, Cheap Burgers Revive McDonald’s,” in The New York Times. New York. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weems, R. E. (1998). Desegregating the Dollar: African American consumerism in the twentieth century. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Williams, J., Henderson, G., & Harris, A.-M. (2001). Consumer racial profiling: Bigotry goes to market. The New Crisis, 108, 22–24.Google Scholar
  76. Yancey, A. K., Cole, B. L., Brown, R., Williams, J. D., Hillier, A., Kline, R. S., et al. (2009). A cross-sectional prevalence study of ethnically targeted and general audience outdoor obesity-related advertising. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 155–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yerger, V. B., Daniel, M. R., & Malone, R. E. (2005). Taking it to the streets: Responses of African American young adults to internal tobacco industry documents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 7(1), 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhou, M. (1997). Growing up American: The challenge confronting immigrant children and children of immigrants. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 63–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zmuda, N. (2009). How coke is targeting black consumers. Retrieved March 8, 2010, from http://adage.com/bigtent/post?article_id=137716.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kogod School of BusinessAmerican UniversityNW WashingtonUSA
  2. 2.African American Collaborative Obesity Research NetworkUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations