Understanding Community Perspectives: A Step Towards Achieving Food Marketing Equity
This chapter examines how historical and social factors impact community perspectives, receptivity, and potential motivation to improve food marketing environments. We explore the diversity of African Americans’ perspectives of marketing and the contextual factors that support different beliefs and responses. Given the nature and history of Black Americans as consumers, it is no surprise that de-marketing unhealthy food and beverages proves to be quite challenging. Insights from the community perspective are necessary in order to develop social and counter-marketing activities to support healthy food environments.
KeywordsChildhood Obesity Fast Food Black Community Food Outlet Black Youth
- American Marketing Association (2007). “AMA Definition of Marketing,” Retrieved from September 20, 2012, http://www.marketingpower.com/Community/ARC/Pages/Additional/Definition/default.aspx].
- Appiah, O. (2001). Ethnic identification on adolescents’ evaluations of advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research (Vol. 41, p. 7): Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
- Bachman, K. (2010). Multicultural Ad spend fared better in ’09. Mediaweek. Retrieved from http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/content_display/news/media-agencies-research/e3i888c20be761d1d659a7ad31dc4dc5c0c.
- Chambers, J. (2006). Equal in every way: African Americans, consumption and materialism from reconstruction to the civil rights movement. Advertising & Society Review, 7(1).Google Scholar
- Deschenes, S., McLaughlin, M., & Newman, A. (2008). Community organizing and youth advocacy. New Directions for Youth Development (117), 1–4.Google Scholar
- Dietz, W. H., Bland, M. G., Gortmaker, S. L., Molloy, M., & Schmid, T. L. (2002). Policy tools for the childhood obesity epidemic. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 30(3 Suppl), 83–87.Google Scholar
- Economos, C. D., Brownson, R. C., DeAngelis, M. A., Novelli, P., Foerster, S. B., Foreman, C. T., et al. (2001). What lessons have been learned from other attempts to guide social change? Nutrition Review, 59(3 Pt 2), S40–S56. discussion S57–S65.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Frey, W. (2003). Married with children. American Demographics, 25, 17–19.Google Scholar
- Grier, S. (2009). African American & Hispanic youth vulnerability to target marketing: Implications for understanding the effects of digital marketing. Berkeley, CA: NPLAN Marketing to Children Learning Community.Google Scholar
- Grier, S. A., & Brumbaugh, A. M. (1999). Noticing cultural differences: Ad meanings created by target and non-target markets. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 79.Google Scholar
- Grocery Manufacturer. (1971). Negro consumers are waiting. In G. Joyce & N. Govoni (Eds.), The Black consumer: Dimensions of behavior and strategy (pp. 49–59). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Harris, J. L., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Fast food F.A.C.T.S.: Evaluating fast food nutrition and marketing to youth. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.Google Scholar
- Humphreys, J. M. (2006). The multicultural economy 2006 (Vol. 66, No. 3). Atlanta: The University of Georgia, Selig Center for Economic Growth.Google Scholar
- Humphries, J. M. (2012). The multicultural economy 2012 report. University of Georgia Selig Center for Economic Growth.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2005). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Retrieved from Citation http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11514.html.
- Khan, M. A. (2009). Coca-Cola debuts ambitious mobile push for Sprite. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://www.dmnews.com/Coca-Cola-debuts-ambitious-mobile-push-for-Sprite/article/95828/.
- Kotler, P. (1997). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control (9th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
- Lindau, S. T., Makelarski, J. A., Chin, M. H., Desautels, S., Johnson, D., Johnson, W. E., Jr., et al. (2011). Building community-engaged health research and discovery infrastructure on the South Side of Chicago: Science in service to community priorities. Preventive Medicine, 52(3–4), 200–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- MacArthur, K., & Neff, J. (2004). Sprite shifts gears in quest for street cred. Advertising Age, 75(4).Google Scholar
- McDonalds Corporation. What is McDonald’s 365 Black? Retrieved May 29, 2009, from http://www.365black.com/365black/whatis.jsp.
- Millstein, R., & Sallis, J. (2011). Youth advocacy for obesity prevention: The next wave of social change for health. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Mullins, P. R. (1999). Race and the Genteel consumer: Class and African-American consumption, 1850–1930. Historical Archaeology, 33(1), 22–38.Google Scholar
- Nielsen. (2008). Advertising spending targeting African-Americans exceeds $2.3B a year. Marketing Charts. Retrieved from http://www.marketingcharts.com/television/advertising-spending-targeting-african-americans-exceeds-23b-a-year-3243/.
- Radio Advertising Bureau. Pepsi pumps the vibe on the streets Retrieved March 8th, 2010, from http://www.rab.com/public/ncs/pdfs/pepsi.pdf.
- Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8–18 year olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
- Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Matheson, D. M., Haskell, W. L., et al. (2003). Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: The Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease, 13(1 Suppl 1), S65–S77.Google Scholar
- Schwarte, L., Samuels, S. E., Capitman, J., Ruwe, M., Boyle, M., & Flores, G. (2010). The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: Changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California’s heartland. American Journal of Public Health, 100(11), 2124–2128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tessler Lindau, S., Makelarski, J. A., Chin, M. H., Desautels, S., Johnson, D., Johnson, W. E., Jr., et al. (2011). Building community-engaged health research and discovery infrastructure on the South Side of Chicago: Science in service to community priorities. Preventive Medicine, 52(3–4), 200–207.Google Scholar
- Tharp, M. (2001). Marketing and consumer identity in multicultural America. Thousand Oakes: Sage.Google Scholar
- The Nielsen Company. (2009). Nielsen projects older, multi-cultural, and low-income consumers driving consumer packaged goods trends in 2020. Retrieved May 12, 2009.Google Scholar
- Wang, Y., & Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States – Gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiological Review, mxm007.Google Scholar
- Weems, R. E. (1998). Desegregating the Dollar: African American consumerism in the twentieth century. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, J., Henderson, G., & Harris, A.-M. (2001). Consumer racial profiling: Bigotry goes to market. The New Crisis, 108, 22–24.Google Scholar
- Zmuda, N. (2009). How coke is targeting black consumers. Retrieved March 8, 2010, from http://adage.com/bigtent/post?article_id=137716.