Toxicities have been an accepted consequence of radiation- and drug-based cancer therapies since the times of Curie and Farber. Inevitably patients’ anxieties were not only about the prognosis associated with their cancer diagnosis but also about the treatment-related hell they would be expected to endure. The pitch that treatment side effects however horrible were a small price to pay for effective cancer interventions was preached by caregivers and tolerated by patients. Supportive cancer care was reactive, rudimentary, and without scientific rationale. Dose de-escalation or breaks in radiation were primary strategies to minimize toxicity, but had an adverse effect on tumor control.