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Selective Neurodegeneration, Neuropathology and Symptom Profiles in Huntington’s Disease

  • Henry J. WaldvogelEmail author
  • Doris Thu
  • Virginia Hogg
  • Lynette Tippett
  • Richard L. M. Faull
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB)

Abstract

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the Huntington gene (HD) also known as IT15. Despite thedisease being caused by dysfunctionofasingle gene, expressed as an expanded polyglutamine in the huntingtin protein, there is a major variability in the symptom profile of patients with Huntington’s disease as well as great variability in the neuropathology. The symptoms vary throughout the course of the disease and vary greatly between cases. These symptoms present as varying degrees of involuntary movements, mood, personality changes, cognitive changes and dementia. To determine whether there is a morphological basis for this symptom variability, recent studies have investigated the cellular andneurochemical changes in the striatum and cerebral cortex in the human brain to determine whether there is a link between the pathology in these regions and the symptomatology shown by individual cases. These studies together revealed that cases showing mainly mood symptom profiles correlatedwithmarked degeneration in the striosomal compartment of the striatum, or in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex. In contrast, in cases with mainly motor symptoms neurodegeneration was especially marked in the primary motor cortex with variable degeneration in both the striosomes and matrix compartments of the striatum. These studies suggest that the variable degeneration of the striatum and cerebral cortex correlates with the variable profiles of Huntington’s disease.

Keywords

Primary Motor Cortex Medium Spiny Neuron Tandem Repeat Polymorphism Matrix Compartment Receptor Immunostaining 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry J. Waldvogel
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Doris Thu
    • 3
  • Virginia Hogg
    • 2
    • 4
  • Lynette Tippett
    • 2
    • 4
  • Richard L. M. Faull
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Centre for Brain ResearchUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Brain Mind InstituteEcole Polytechnique Federale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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