Chemistry of Cereal Grains

Chapter

Abstract

With an annual production of more than two billion tons cereals are amongst the most important commodities in the world. Thus, products made from cereals are staple foods that contribute considerably to the energy and nutrient intake of mankind. The major cereals are corn, wheat, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, and rye. Their constituents affect the nutritional and technological properties of cereals. Carbohydrates are the main constituents with starch providing energy and texture. However, although nonstarch polysaccharides are minor constituents they represent dietary fiber and exhibit positive health effects, in particular for whole grain products. Cereal proteins are quantitatively less important than carbohydrates, but they are of major importance for the functional properties, in particular for the bread-making performance of wheat and rye or for the quality of tortillas made from corn. The protein composition of different cereals varies considerably, but they have in common that lysine and methionine contents are low. Thus, cereal proteins are of poor nutritional value. Lipids are a minor constituent of cereals, but particularly in wheat flour polar lipids positively affect dough properties and enable the production of bread with good texture and quality. Whole grain cereals are important sources of minerals and B-vitamins.

Keywords

Surfactant Carbohydrate Cysteine Polysaccharide Lysine 

Notes

Abbreviations

AX

Arabinoxylans

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

GMP

Glutenin macropolymer

GS

Glutenin subunits

HMW

High-molecular-weight

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

LMW

Low-molecular-weight

m/a

Monomeric/aggregated

MMW

Medium-molecular-weight

MW

Molecular weight

MWD

Molecular weight distribution

NSP

Nonstarch polysaccharides

PAGE

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

TG

Transglutaminase

WEAX

Water-extractable arabinoxylans

WUAX

Water-unextractable arabinoxylans

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Research Center for Food ChemistryFreisingGermany

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