Chemistry of Cereal Grains

  • Peter Koehler
  • Herbert Wieser


With an annual production of more than two billion tons cereals are amongst the most important commodities in the world. Thus, products made from cereals are staple foods that contribute considerably to the energy and nutrient intake of mankind. The major cereals are corn, wheat, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, and rye. Their constituents affect the nutritional and technological properties of cereals. Carbohydrates are the main constituents with starch providing energy and texture. However, although nonstarch polysaccharides are minor constituents they represent dietary fiber and exhibit positive health effects, in particular for whole grain products. Cereal proteins are quantitatively less important than carbohydrates, but they are of major importance for the functional properties, in particular for the bread-making performance of wheat and rye or for the quality of tortillas made from corn. The protein composition of different cereals varies considerably, but they have in common that lysine and methionine contents are low. Thus, cereal proteins are of poor nutritional value. Lipids are a minor constituent of cereals, but particularly in wheat flour polar lipids positively affect dough properties and enable the production of bread with good texture and quality. Whole grain cereals are important sources of minerals and B-vitamins.


Disulfide Bond Polar Lipid Storage Protein Starch Granule Gluten Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.






Differential scanning calorimetry


Glutenin macropolymer


Glutenin subunits




High-performance liquid chromatography








Molecular weight


Molecular weight distribution


Nonstarch polysaccharides


Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Sodium dodecyl sulfate




Water-extractable arabinoxylans


Water-unextractable arabinoxylans


  1. 1.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2012) FAOSTAT Database. Accessed 18 May 2012
  2. 2.
    Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H (2008) In: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie (ed) Food composition and nutrition tables. Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie. MedPharm Scientific Publishers, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belitz H-D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2009) Cereals and cereal products. In: Belitz H-D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (eds) Food chemistry, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 670–675Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goesaert H, Brijs C, Veraverbeke WS, Courtin CM, Gebruers K, Delcour JA (2005) Wheat constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends Food Sci Tech 16:12–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeeman SC, Kossmann J, Smith AM (2010) Starch: its metabolism, evolution, and biotechnological modification in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:209–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colonna P, Buléon A (1992) New insights on starch structure and properties. In: Cereal chemistry and technology: a long past and a bright future. In: Proceedings of the 9th international cereal and bread congress, 1992, Paris, France, Institut de Recherche Technologique Agroalimentaire des Céréales (IRTAC), Paris, France, 1992; pp. 25–42Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Hung P, Maeda T, Morita N (2006) Waxy and high-amylose wheat starches and flours-characteristics, functionality and application. Trends Food Sci Tech 17:448–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jonnala RS, MacRitchie F, Smail VW, Seabourn BW, Tilley M, Lafiandra D, Urbano M (2010) Protein and quality characterization of complete and partial near-isogenic lines of waxy wheat. Cereal Chem 87:538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Topping DL, Segal I, Regina A, Conlon MA, Bajka BH, Toden S, Clarke JM, Morell MK, Bird AR (2010) Resistant starch and human health. In: Van der Kamp W (ed) Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health, proceedings of the 4th international dietary fibre conference, Vienna, Austria, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 311–321Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hizukuri S, Takeda Y, Yasuda M (1981) Multi-branched nature of amylose and the action of debranching enzymes. Carbohyd Res 94:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shibanuma K, Takeda Y, Hizukuri S, Shibata S (1994) Molecular structures of some wheat starches. Carbohyd Polym 25:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buléon A, Colonna P, Planchot V, Ball S (1998) Starch granules: structure and biosynthesis. Int J Biol Macromol 23:85–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zobel HF (1988) Starch crystal transformations and their industrial importance. Starch/Stärke 40:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hizukuri S (1986) Polymodal distribution of the chain lengths of amylopectins and its significance. Carbohyd Res 147:342–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peat S, Whelan WJ, Thomas GJ (1956) The enzymic synthesis and degradation of starch. XXII. Evidence of multiple branching in waxy maize starch. J Chem Soc: 3025–3030Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    French D (1984) Organization of starch granules. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN, Paschal EF (eds) Starch chemistry and technology, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, pp 183–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hejazi M, Fettke J, Paris O, Steup M (2009) The two plastidial starch-related dikinases sequentially phosphorylate glucosyl residues at the surface of both the A-and B-type allomorphs of crystallized maltodextrins but the mode of action differs. Plant Physiol 150:962–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karlsson R, Olered R, Eliasson A-C (1983) Changes in starch granule size distribution and starch gelatinisation properties during development and maturation of wheat, barley and rye. Starch/Stärke 35:335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hizukuri S (1996) Starch: analytical aspects. In: Eliasson A-C (ed) Carbohydrates in food. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp 347–429Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jenkins PJ, Cameron RE, Donald AM (1993) A universal feature in the structure of starch granules from different botanical sources. Starch/Stärke 45:417–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gallant DJ, Bouchet B, Baldwin PM (1997) Microscopy of starch: evidence of a new level of granule organization. Carbohyd Polym 32:177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Atwell WA, Hood LF, Lineback DR, Varriano-Marston E, Zobel HF (1988) The terminology and methodology associated with basic starch phenomena. Cereal Foods World 33:306–311Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tester RF, Debon SJJ (2000) Annealing of starch—a review. Int J Biol Macromol 27:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waigh TA, Gidley MJ, Komanshek BU, Donald AM (2000) The phase transformations in starch during gelatinisation: a liquid crystalline approach. Carbohyd Res 328:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kalichevsky MT, Ring SG (1987) Incompatibility of amylase and amylopectin in aqueous solution. Carbohyd Res 162:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eliasson A-C, Gudmundsson M (1996) Starch: physicochemical and functional aspects. In: Eliasson A-C (ed) Carbohydrates in food. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp 431–503Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miles MJ, Morris VJ, Orford PD, Ring SG (1985) The roles of amylose and amylopectin in the gelation and retrogradation of starch. Carbohyd Res 135:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morrison WR, Law RV, Snape CE (1993) Evidence for inclusion complexes of lipids with V-amylose in maize, rice and oat starches. J Cereal Sci 18:107–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Selmair PL, Koehler P (2008) Baking performance of synthetic glycolipids in comparison to commercial surfactants. J Agric Food Chem 56:6691–6700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Morrison WR, Gadan H (1987) The amylose and lipid contents of starch granules in developing wheat endosperm. J Cereal Sci 5:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blackwood AD, Salter J, Dettmar PW, Chaplin MF (2000) Dietary fibre, physicochemical properties and their relationship to health. J Roy Soc Promot Health 120:242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG, Mascara T, O’Dea K (2000) Arabinoxylan fiber, a byproduct of wheat flour processing, reduces the postprandial glucose response in normoglycemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1123–1128Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG, O’Dea K (2004) Arabinoxylan fibre improves metabolic control in people with type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Garcia AL, Steiniger J, Reich SC, Weickert MO, Harsch I, Machowetz A, Mohlig M, Spranger J, Rudovich NN, Meuser F, Doerfer J, Katz N, Speth M, Zunft HJF, Pfeiffer AHF, Koebnick C (2006) Arabinoxylan fibre consumption improved glucose metabolism, but did not affect serum adipokines in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Hormone Meta Res 38:761–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garcia AL, Otto B, Reich SC, Weickert MO, Steiniger J, Machowetz A, Rudovich NN, Mohlig M, Katz N, Speth M, Meuser F, Doerfer J, Zunft HJ, Pfeiffer AH, Koebnick C (2007) Arabinoxylan consumption decreases postprandial serum glucose, serum insulin and plasma total ghrelin response in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 61:334–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Babio N, Balanza R, Basulto J, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J (2010) Dietary fibre: influence on body weight, glycemic control and plasma cholesterol profile. Nutr Hospital 25:327–340Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Izydorczyk MS, Biliaderis CG (1995) Cereal arabinoxylans: advances in structure and physicochemical properties. Carbohyd Polym 28:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meuser F, Suckow P (1986) Non-starch polysaccharides. In: Blanshard JMV, Frazier PJ, Galliard T (eds) Chemistry and physics of baking. The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp 42–61Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perlin AS (1951) Isolation and composition of the soluble pentosans of wheat flour. Cereal Chem 28:370–381Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Perlin AS (1951) Structure of the soluble pentosans of wheat flours. Cereal Chem 28:282–393Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fausch H, Kündig W, Neukom H (1963) Ferulic acid as a component of a glycoprotein from wheat flour. Nature 199:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Delcour JA, Van Win H, Grobet PJ (1999) Distribution and structural variation of arabinoxylans in common wheat mill streams. J Agric Food Chem 47:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maes C, Delcour JA (2002) Structural characterisation of water-extractable and water-unextractable arabinoxylans in wheat bran. J Cereal Sci 35:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dervilly G, Saulnier L, Roger P, Thibault J-F (2000) Isolation of homogeneous fractions from wheat water-soluble arabinoxylans. Influence of the structure on their macromolecular characteristics. J Agric Food Chem 48:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gruppen H, Hamer RJ, Voragen AGJ (1992) Water-unextractable cell wall material from wheat flour. II. Fractionation of alkali-extractable polymers and comparison with water extractable arabinoxylans. J Cereal Sci 16:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gruppen H, Komelink FJM, Voragen AGJ (1993) Water-unextractable cell wall material from wheat flour. III. A structural model for arabinoxylans. J Cereal Sci 19:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mares DJ, Stone BA (1973) Studies on wheat endosperm. I. Chemical composition and ultrastructure of the cell walls. Aust J Bio Sci 26:793–812Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mares DJ, Stone BA (1973) Studies on wheat endosperm. II. Properties of the wall components and studies on their organization in the wall. Aust J Bio Sci 26:813–830Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gan Z, Ellis PR, Schofield JD (1995) Mini review: gas cell stabilisation and gas retention in wheat bread dough. J Cereal Sci 21:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Atwell WA (1998) Method for reducing syruping in refrigerated doughs. Patent application 1998; WO 97/26794Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Izydorczyk MS, Biliaderis CG, Bushuk W (1990) Oxidative gelation studies of water-soluble pentosans from wheat. J Cereal Sci 11:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Figueroa-Espinoza MC, Rouau X (1998) Oxidative crosslinking of pentosans by a fungal laccase and horseradish peroxidase: mechanism of linkage between feruloylated arabinoxylans. Cereal Chem 75:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vinkx CJA, Van Nieuwenhove CG, Delcour JA (1991) Physicochemical and functional properties of rye nonstarch polysaccharides. III. Oxidative gelation of a fraction containing water-soluble pentosans and proteins. Cereal Chem 68:617–622Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Courtin CM, Roelants A, Delcour JA (1999) Fractionation-reconstitution experiments provide insight into the role of endoxylanases in bread-making. J Agric Food Chem 47:1870–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Courtin CM, Gelders GG, Delcour JA (2001) The use of two endoxylanases with different substrate selectivity provides insight into the functionality of arabinoxylans in wheat flour breadmaking. Cereal Chem 78:564–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wieser H, Seilmeier W, Eggert M, Belitz H-D (1983) Tryptophangehalt von Getreideproteinen. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 177:457–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Osborne TB (1907) The proteins of the wheat kernel, vol 84. Carnegie Inst, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Peterson DM (1978) Subunit structure and composition of oat seed globulin. Plant Physiol 62:506–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shewry PR, Tatham AS (1990) The prolamin storage proteins of cereal seeds: structure and evolution. Biochem J 267:1–12Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wieser H (1994) Cereal protein chemistry. In: Feighery C, O’Farrelly C (eds) Gastrointestinal immunology and gluten-sensitive disease. Oak Tree Press, Dublin, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wieser H, Koehler P (2008) The biochemical basis of celiac disease. Cereal Chem 85:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Payne PI, Nightingale MA, Krattinger AF, Holt LM (1987) The relationship between HMW glutenin subunit composition and the bread-making quality of British-grown wheat varieties. J Sci Food Agric 40:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Database Uni Prot KB/TREMBL.
  64. 64.
    Grosch W, Wieser H (1999) Redox reactions in wheat dough as affected by ascorbic acid. J Cereal Sci 29:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wieser H, Bushuk W, MacRitchie F (2006) The polymeric glutenins. In: Wrigley C, Bekes F, Bushuk W (eds) Gliadin and glutenin: the unique balance of wheat quality. AACC International, St. Paul, pp 213–240Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gellrich C, Schieberle P, Wieser H (2005) Studies of partial amino acid sequences of γ-40 k secalins of rye. Cereal Chem 82:541–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Robert LS, Nozzolillo C, Altosaar I (1985) Characterization of oat (Avena sativa L.) residual proteins. Cereal Chem 62:276–279Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wieser H (2000) Comparative investigations of gluten proteins from different wheat species. I. Qualitative and quantitative composition of gluten protein types. Eur Food Res Tech 211:262–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gellrich C, Schieberle P, Wieser H (2003) Biochemical characterization and quantification of the storage protein (secalin) types in rye flour. Cereal Chem 80:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lange M, Vincze E, Wieser H, Schjoerring JK, Holm PB (2007) Suppression of C-hordein synthesis in barley by antisense constructs results in a more balanced amino acid composition. J Agric Food Chem 55:6074–6081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lutz E, Wieser H, Koehler P (2012) Identification of disulfide bonds in wheat gluten proteins by means of mass spectrometry/electron transfer dissociation. J Agric Food Chem 60:3708–3716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Köhler P, Wieser H (2000) Comparative studies of high Mr subunits of rye and wheat. III. Localisation of cysteine residues. J Cereal Sci 32:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Koehler P (2010) Structure and functionality of gluten proteins: an overview. In: Branlard G (ed) Gluten proteins 2009. INRA, Paris, France, pp 84–88Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Weegels PL, Hamer RJ, Schofield JD (1996) Functional properties of wheat glutenin. J Cereal Sci 23:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wrigley CW (1996) Giant proteins with flour power. Nature 381:738–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Altpeter F, Popelka JC, Wieser H (2004) Stable expression of 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in transgenic rye drastically increases the polymeric glutelin fraction in rye. Plant Mol Biol 54:783–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wieser H, Seilmeier W, Kieffer R, Altpeter F (2005) Flour protein composition and functional properties of transgenic rye lines expressing HMW subunits genes of wheat. Cereal Chem 82:594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wieser H, Seilmeier W (1998) The influence of nitrogen fertilisation on quantities and proportions of different protein types in wheat flour. J Sci Food Agric 76:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wieser H, Gutser R, von Tucher S (2004) Influence of sulphur fertilisation on quantities and proportions of gluten protein types in wheat flour. J Cereal Sci 40:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhao FJ, Hawkesford MJ, McGrath SP (1999) Sulphur assimilation and effects on yield and quality of wheat. J Cereal Sci 30:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wang J, Wieser H, Pawelzik E, Weinert J, Keutgen AJ, Wolf GA (2005) Impact of the fungal protease produced by Fusarium culmorum on the protein quality and bread making properties of winter wheat. Eur Food Res Tech 220:552–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Eggert K, Wieser H, Pawelzik E (2010) The influence of Fusarium infection and growing location on the quantitative protein composition of (part I) emmer (Triticum dicoccum). Eur Food Res Tech 230:837–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Eggert K, Wieser H, Pawelzik E (2010) The influence of Fusarium infection and growing location on the quantitative protein composition of (part II) naked barley (Hordeum vulgare nudum). Eur Food Res Tech 230:893–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dalby A, Tsai CY (1976) Lysine and tryptophan increases during germination of cereal grains. Cereal Chem 53:222–226Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Koehler P, Hartmann G, Wieser H, Rychlik M (2007) Changes of folates, dietary fiber, and proteins in wheat as affected by germination. J Agric Food Chem 55:4678–4683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wieser H, Vermeulen N, Gaertner F, Vogel RF (2008) Effects of different Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains and chemical acidification regarding degradation of gluten proteins during sourdough fermentation. Eur Food Res Tech 226:1495–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wieser H (1998) Investigations on the extractability of gluten proteins from wheat bread in comparison with flour. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch A 207:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kieffer R, Schurer F, Köhler P, Wieser H (2007) Effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the chemical and functional properties of wheat gluten: studies on gluten, gliadin and glutenin. J Cereal Sci 45:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wieser H (2003) The use of redox agents. In: Cauvin SP (ed) Bread making: improving quality. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK, pp 424–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hanft F, Koehler P (2005) Quantitation of dityrosine in wheat flour and dough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 53:2418–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bauer N, Köhler P, Wieser H, Schieberle P (2003) Studies on the effects of microbial transglutaminase on gluten proteins of wheat. I. Biochemical analysis. Cereal Chem 80:781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kasarda DD (1989) Glutenin structure in relation to wheat quality. In: Pomeranz Y (ed) Wheat is unique. AACC, St. Paul, pp 277–302Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tatham AS, Shewry PR (1985) The conformation of wheat gluten proteins. The secondary structures and thermal stabilities of α-, β-, γ- and ω-gliadins. J Cereal Sci 3:104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Müller S, Wieser H (1997) The location of disulphide bonds in monomeric γ-type gliadins. J Cereal Sci 26:169–176Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tatham AS, Miflin BJ, Shewry PR (1985) The β-turn conformation in wheat gluten proteins: relationship to gluten elasticity. Cereal Chem 62:405–412Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Esen A (1987) A proposed nomenclature for the alcohol-soluble proteins (zeins) of maize (zea-mays-l). J Cereal Sci 5:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wilson CM (1991) Multiple zeins from maize endosperms characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Plant Physiol 95:777–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rubenstein I, Geraghty D (1986) The genetic organization of zein. In: Pomeranz Y (ed) Advances in cereal science and technology, vol VIII. AACC, St. Paul, pp 297–315Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shull JM, Watterson JJ, Kirleis AW (1991) Proposed nomenclature for the alcohol-soluble proteins (kafirins) of Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench) based on molecular weight, solubility, and structure. J Agric Food Chem 39:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Watterson JJ, Shull JM, Kirleis AW (1993) Quantitation of a-, b-, and g-kafirins in vitreous and opaque endosperm of Sorghum bicolor. Cereal Chem 70:452–457Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hamaker BR, Mohamed AA, Habben JE, Huang CP, Larkins BA (1995) Efficient procedure for extracting maize and sorghum kernel proteins reveals higher prolamin contents than the conventional method. Cereal Chem 72:583–588Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Danno G, Natake M (1980) Isolation of foxtail millet proteins and their subunit structure. Agric Biol Chem 44:913–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Juliano BO (1985) Polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. In: Juliano BO (ed) Rice chemistry and technology, 2nd edn. AACC, St. Paul, pp 98–142Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mandac BE, Juliano BO (1978) Properties of prolamin in mature and developing rice grain. Phytochem 17:611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kruger JE, Reed G (1988) Enzymes and color. In: Pomeranz Y (ed) Wheat chemistry and technology, vol I, 3rd edn. AACC, St. Paul, pp 441–476Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Delcour JA, Hoseney RC (2010) Principles of cereal science and technology, 3rd edn. AACC International, Inc, St. Paul, pp 40–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Eliasson A-C, Larsson KA (1993) Molecular colloidal approach. In: Cereals in breadmaking. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hoseney RC (1994) Principles of cereal science and technology, 2nd edn. AACC, St. Paul, pp 81–101, and 229–273Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    MacMurray TA, Morrison WR (1970) Composition of wheat-flour lipids. J Sci Food Agric 21:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morrison WR, Mann DL, Soon W, Coventry AM (1975) Selective extraction and quantitative analysis of nonstarch and starch lipids from wheat flour. J Sci Food Agric 26:507–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    MacRitchie F (1981) Flour lipids: theoretical aspects and functional properties. Cereal Chem 58:156–158Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Daftary RD, Pomeranz Y, Shogren M, Finney KF (1968) Functional bread-making properties of wheat flour. II. The role of flour lipid fractions in bread making. Food Technol 22:327–330Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hoseney RC, Pomeranz Y, Finney KF (1970) Functional (breadmaking) and biochemical properties of wheat flour components. VII. Petroleum ether-soluble lipoproteins of wheat flour. Cereal Chem 47:153–160Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gan Z, Angold RE, Williams MR, Ellis PR, Vaughan JG, Galliard T (1990) The microstructure and gas retention of bread dough. J Cereal Sci 12:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sroan BS, Bean SR, MacRitchie F (2009) Mechanism of gas cell stabilization in bread making. I. The primary gluten-starch matrix. J Cereal Sci 49:32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sroan BS, MacRitchie F (2009) Mechanism of gas cell stabilization in breadmaking. II. The secondary liquid lamellae. J Cereal Sci 49:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Selmair PL, Koehler P (2009) Molecular structure and baking performance of individual glycolipid classes from lecithins. J Agric Food Chem 57:5597–5609CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Research Center for Food ChemistryFreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations