Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Donna E. Hansel
  • Amr Fergany


In addition to urothelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma represents a major morphologic subtype of bladder cancer that harbors unique pathogenetic and molecular alterations. In the United States, squamous cell carcinoma affects less than 5 % of all bladder cancer patients, with primary risk factors that include tobacco smoke, long-term catheterization, urinary tract calculi, and a nonfunctioning bladder [1]. A male predominance is common (approximate 3:1 male:female ratio) and patients tend to be older (>60 years of age). Squamous cell carcinoma may also occur in the upper tract, with this form of carcinoma representing up to 10 % of all renal pelvis carcinomas and also likely incited by chronic inflammatory conditions [2–4]. In contrast to the bladder, upper tract squamous cell carcinoma tends to have a roughly equal proportion of men and women affected by the disease [3].


Squamous Cell Carcinoma Bladder Cancer Urothelial Carcinoma Squamous Carcinoma Bladder Cancer Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Sections of Oncology, Laparoscopy and RoboticsCleveland Clinic, Glickman Urological and Kidney InstituteClevelandUSA

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