• Sana Loue


The concept of mindfulness has been subject to various definitions. In general, the term has been used to refer to interventions that focus on maintaining purposeful attention to the present moment, without judgment. It has been described as a way of being, rather than a way of doing. Mindfulness is also characterized by an open, receptive attitude. Additional key elements of mindfulness include an ability to recognize and label one’s emotions, the development of more refined self-awareness, and movement towards becoming more responsive and less reactive. Some scholars have distinguished between mindfulness interventions and concentrative meditations, such as Transcendental Meditation. Concentrative meditations are distinguished by their focus on a specific stimulus, such as breathing, and a refocusing on that stimulus when attention drifts from it.


Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness Practice Meditation Practice Mindfulness Intervention Receptive Attitude 
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Suggested Readings

  1. Greeson, J. M. (2009). Mindfulness research update: 2008. Complementary Health Practice Review, 14(1), 10–18.Google Scholar
  2. Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  4. McCown, D., Reibel, D., & Micozzi, M. S. (Eds.). (2010). Teaching mindfulness: A practical guide for clinicians and educators. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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