Advertisement

Mental Health Comorbidity and HIV/AIDS

  • Katherine Kovalski Busby
  • Sarah Lytle
  • Martha Sajatovic
Chapter

Abstract

New data on the incidence and prevalence of HIV both in the United States and throughout the world underscore the continuing magnitude of the AIDS epidemic clearly. There are now an estimated 1.2 million people in the United States and 34 million people in the world living with HIV, with 2.7 million new infections in the world in 2010, including an estimated 390,000 among children (UNAIDS, 2011). The UNAIDS report urgently calls for accelerated responses from countries in efforts to completely halt the spread of the disease and highlights the declining incidence and death rate from the disease. However, there are still no current cures or available vaccines. Although medications which are available to manage HIV have been helpful in decreasing the ravages of the disease and prolonging life, each has drawbacks. We in health care must be prepared to manage HIV and AIDS for decades to come.

Keywords

Depressive Symptom Mental Illness Bipolar Disorder Atypical Antipsychotic Psychotic Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Altice, F. L., Kamarulzaman, A., Soriano, W., Schechter, M., & Friedland, G. H. (2010). Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet, 376(9738), 367–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arendt, G., de Nocker, D., von Giesen, H. J., & Nolting, T. (2007). Neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz therapy. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 6(2), 147–154. doi: 10.1517/14740338.6.2.147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnsten, J. H., Demas, P. A., Grant, R. W., Gourevitch, M. N., Farzadegan, H., Howard, A. A., et al. (2002). Impact of active drug use on antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in HIV-infected drug users. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(5), 377–381.Google Scholar
  5. Azar, M. M., Springer, S. A., Meyer, J. P., & Altice, F. L. (2010). A systematic review of the impact of alcohol use disorders on HIV treatment outcomes, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and health care utilization. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(3), 178–193. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.06.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baillargeon, J. G., Paar, D. P., Wu, H., Giordano, T. P., Murray, O., & Raimer, B. G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders, HIV infection and HIV/hepatitis co-infection in the correctional setting. AIDS Care, 20, 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bansil, P., Jamieson, D. J., Posner, S. F., & Kourtis, A. P. (2009). Trends in hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses among HIV-infected women in the USA, 1994–2004. AIDS Care, 21(11), 1432–1438. doi: 10.1080/09540120902814387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baum, M. K., Rafie, C., Lai, S., Sales, S., Page, J. B., & Campa, A. (2010). Alcohol use accelerates HIV disease progression. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 26(5), 511–518. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benton, T. D. (2010). Treatment of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12(2), 104–110. doi: 10.1007/s11920-010-0092-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benton, T. D. (2011). Psychiatric considerations in children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(4), 989–1002. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2011.06.013. xii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benton, T., Lynch, K., Dube, B., Gettes, D. R., Tustin, N. B., Ping Lai, J., Metzger, D. S., Blume, J., Douglas, S. D., & Evans, D. L. (2010). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(9), 925–932. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f883ce.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg, C. J., Michelson, S. E., & Safren, S. A. (2007). Behavioral aspects of HIV care: Adherence, depression, substance use, and HIV-transmission behaviors. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 21(1), 181–200. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2007.01.005. x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bing, E. G., Burnam, M. A., Longshore, D., Fleishman, J. A., Sherbourne, C. D., London, A. S., et al. (2001). Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(8), 721–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumberg, S. J., & Dickey, W. C. (2003). Prevalence of HIV risk behaviors, risk perceptions, and testing among U.S. adults with mental disorders. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 32(1), 77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braitstein, P., Justice, A., Bangsberg, D. R., Yip, B., Alfonso, V., Schechter, M. T., et al. (2006). Hepatitis C coinfection is independently associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a population-based HIV cohort. AIDS (London, England), 20(3), 323–331. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000198091.70325.f4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Branson, B. M., Handsfield, H. H., Lampe, M. A., Janssen, R. S., Taylor, A. W., Lyss, S. B., et al. (2006). Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports/Centers for Disease Control, 55(RR-14), 1–17 (quiz CE1-4).Google Scholar
  17. Brogan, K., & Lux, J. (2009). Management of common psychiatric conditions in the HIV-positive population. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 6(2), 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, L. K., Danovsky, M. B., Lourie, K. J., DiClemente, R. J., & Ponton, L. E. (1997). Adolescents with psychiatric disorders and the risk of HIV. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(11), 1609–1617. doi: 10.1016/S0890-8567(09)66573-4.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, L. K., Lourie, K. J., & Pao, M. (2000). Children and adolescents living with HIV and AIDS: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 41(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burchett, S. K., & Pizzo, P. A. (2003). HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics in Review/American Academy of Pediatrics, 24(6), 186–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carrico, A. W., Johnson, M. O., Morin, S. F., Remien, R. H., Riley, E. D., Hecht, F. M., et al. (2008). Stimulant use is associated with immune activation and depleted tryptophan among HIV-positive persons on anti-retroviral therapy. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22(8), 1257–1262. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carrico, A. W., Johnson, M. O., Moskowitz, J. T., Neilands, T. B., Morin, S. F., Charlebois, E. D., et al. (2007). Affect regulation, stimulant use, and viral load among HIV-positive persons on anti-retroviral therapy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(8), 785–792. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318157b142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2007, June). HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2005. Vol. 17. rev ed. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). HIV surveillance in injection drug users (through 2009). Retrieved November 29, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/idu/resources/slides/index.htm
  25. Chernoff, M., Nachman, S., Williams, P., Brouwers, P., Heston, J., Hodge, J., et al. (2009). Mental health treatment patterns in perinatally HIV-infected youth and controls. Pediatrics, 124(2), 627–636. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciesla, J. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2001). Meta-analysis of the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(5), 725–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, S. M., Blashill, A. J., Gandhi, R. T., Safren, S. A., & Freudenreich, O. (2012). Impact of integrated and measurement-based depression care: Clinical experience in an HIV clinic. Psychosomatics, 53(1), 51–57. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2011.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Colfax, G. N., Vittinghoff, E., Grant, R., Lum, P., Spotts, G., & Hecht, F. M. (2007). Frequent methamphetamine use is associated with primary non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. AIDS (London, England), 21(2), 239–241. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280114a29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Comulada, W. S., Swendeman, D. T., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Mattes, K. M., & Weiss, R. E. (2003). Use of HAART among young people living with HIV. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(4), 389–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook, J. A., Burke-Miller, J. K., Cohen, M. H., Cook, R. L., Vlahov, D., Wilson, T. E., et al. (2008). Crack cocaine, disease progression, and mortality in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 positive women. AIDS (London, England), 22(11), 1355–1363. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830507f2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cournos, F., Guido, J. R., Coomaraswamy, S., Meyer-Bahlburg, H., Sugden, R., & Horwath, E. (1994). Sexual activity and risk of HIV infection among patients with schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(2), 228–232.Google Scholar
  32. Cournos, F., Horwath, E., Guido, J. R., McKinnon, K., & Hopkins, N. (1994). HIV-1 infection at two public psychiatric hospitals in New York City. AIDS Care, 6(4), 443–452. doi: 10.1080/09540129408258659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cournos, F., McKinnon, K., & Sullivan, G. (2005). Schizophrenia and comorbid human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(Suppl. 6), 27–33.Google Scholar
  34. Cruess, D. G., Douglas, S. D., Petitto, J. M., Have, T. T., Gettes, D., Dube, B., et al. (2005). Association of resolution of major depression with increased natural killer cell activity among HIV-seropositive women. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(11), 2125–2130. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp. 162.11.2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalessandro, M., Conti, C. M., Gambi, F., Falasca, K., Doyle, R., Conti, P., et al. (2007). Antidepressant therapy can improve adherence to antiretroviral regimens among HIV-infected and depressed patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(1), 58–61. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e31802f0dd1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de la Garza, C. L., Paoletti-Duarte, S., Garcia-Martin, C., & Gutierrez-Casares, J. R. (2001). Efavirenz-induced psychosis. AIDS (London, England), 15(14), 1911–1912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. De Maat, M. M. R., Ekhart, G. C., Huitema, A. D. R., Koks, C. H. W., Mulder, J. W., & Beijnen, J. H. (2003). Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and comedicated agents. Clinical Pharmakokinetics, 42(3), 223–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. De Ronchi, D., Bellini, F., Cremante, G., Ujkaj, M., Tarricone, I., Selleri, R., et al. (2006). Psychopathology of first-episode psychosis in HIV-positive persons in comparison to first-episode schizophrenia: A neglected issue. AIDS Care, 18(8), 872–878. doi: 10.1080/09540120500307842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Ronchi, D., Faranca, I., Forti, P., Ravaglia, G., Borderi, M., Manfredi, R., et al. (2000). Development of acute psychotic disorders and HIV-1 infection. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 30(2), 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. DeLaMora, P., Aledort, N., & Stavola, J. (2006). Caring for adolescents with HIV. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 3(2), 74–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dew, M. A., Becker, J. T., Sanchez, J., Caldararo, R., Lopez, O. L., Wess, J., et al. (1997). Prevalence and predictors of depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders in HIV-infected and uninfected men: A longitudinal evaluation. Psychological Medicine, 27, 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dodig, M., & Tavill, A. S. (2001). Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfections. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 33(5), 367–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Donenberg, G. R., & Pao, M. (2005). Youths and HIV/AIDS: Psychiatry’s role in a changing epidemic. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(8), 728–747. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000166381.68392.02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dyer, T. P., Stein, J. A., Rice, E., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2012). Predicting depression in mothers with and without HIV: The role of social support and family dynamics. AIDS and Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10461-012-0149-6.
  45. Elkington, K. S., Bauermeister, J. A., Brackis-Cott, E., Dolezal, C., & Mellins, C. A. (2009). Substance use and sexual risk behaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-exposed youth: Roles of caregivers, peers and HIV status. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 45(2), 133–141. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ellen, S. R., Judd, F. K., Mijch, A. M., & Cockram, A. (1999). Secondary mania in patients with HIV infection. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(3), 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Esposito, S., Musetti, L., Musetti, M. C., Tornaghi, R., Corbella, S., Massironi, E., et al. (1999). Behavioral and psychological disorders in uninfected children aged 6 to 11 years born to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive mothers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 20(6), 411–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Evans, D. L., Leserman, J., Perkins, D. O., Stern, R. A., Murphy, C., Zheng, B., et al. (1997). Severe life stress as a predictor of early disease progression in HIV infection. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(5), 630–634.Google Scholar
  49. Fauci, A. S., Mavilio, D., & Kottilil, S. (2005). NK cells in HIV infection: Paradigm for protection or targets for ambush. Nature Reviews. Immunology, 5(11), 835–843. doi: 10.1038/nri1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferguson, M. C. (2011). Current therapies for chronic hepatitis C. Pharmacotherapy, 31(1), 92–111. doi: 10.1592/phco.31.1.92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferrando, S. J. (2005). Managing depression in HIV disease, viral hepatitis, and substance abuse. The PRN Notebook, 10(4). Retrieved April 23, 2012 from http://www.prn.org/images/pdfs/70_663_ferrando_stephen_v10_n4.pdf
  52. Foster, R., Olajide, D., & Everall, I. P. (2003). Antiretroviral therapy-induced psychosis: Case report and brief review of the literature. HIV Medicine, 4(2), 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Freudenreich, O., Goforth, H. W., Cozza, K. L., Mimiaga, M. J., Safren, S. A., Bachmann, G., et al. (2010). Psychiatric treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS: An HIV-psychiatry consensus survey of current practices. Psychosomatics, 51(6), 480–488. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.51.6.480.Google Scholar
  54. Gadow, K. D., Chernoff, M., Williams, P. L., Brouwers, P., Morse, E., Heston, J., et al. (2010). Co-occuring psychiatric symptoms in children perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparison sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(2), 116–128. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181cdaa20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gaughan, D. M., Hughes, M. D., Oleske, J. M., Malee, K., Gore, C. A., Nachman, S., et al. (2004). Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics, 113(6), e544–e551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gaynes, B. N., Pence, B. W., Eron, J. J., Jr., & Miller, W. C. (2008). Prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses based on reference standard in an HIV+ patient population. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(4), 505–511. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31816aa0cc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Geller, B., Zimerman, B., Williams, M., Delbello, M. P., Frazier, J., & Beringer, L. (2002). Phenomenology of prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder: Examples of elated mood, grandiose behaviors, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts and hypersexuality. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 12(1), 3–9. doi: 10.1089/10445460252943524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gewirtz, G., Horwath, E., Cournos, F., & Empfield, M. (1988). Patients at risk for HIV. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39(12), 1311–1312.Google Scholar
  59. Gorbach, P. M., Drumright, L. N., Javanbakht, M., Pond, S. L., Woelk, C. H., Daar, E. S., et al. (2008). Antiretroviral drug resistance and risk behavior among recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 47(5), 639–643. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181684c3d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gore-Felton, C., & Koopman, C. (2008). Behavioral mediation of the relationship between psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5), 569–574. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318177353e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gottesman, I. I., & Groome, C. S. (1997). HIV/AIDS risks as a consequence of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23(4), 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grigoryan, A., Hall, H. I., Durant, T., & Wei, X. (2009). Late HIV diagnosis and determinants of progression to AIDS or death after HIV diagnosis among injection drug users, 33 US states, 1996–2004. PLoS One, 4(2), e4445. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hansen, B. A., Greenberg, K. S., & Richter, J. A. (1996). Ganciclovir-induced psychosis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 335(18), 1397. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199610313351814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harris, M. J., Jeste, D. V., Gleghorn, A., & Sewell, D. D. (1991). New-onset psychosis in HIV-infected patients. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52(9), 369–376.Google Scholar
  65. Heinssen, R. K., Liberman, R. P., & Kopelowicz, A. (2000). Psychosocial skills training for schizophrenia: Lessons from the laboratory. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26(1), 21–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hendershot, C. S., Stoner, S. A., Pantalone, D. W., & Simoni, J. M. (2009). Alcohol use and antiretroviral adherence: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 52(2), 180–202. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b18b6e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hinkin, C. H., Barclay, T. R., Castellon, S. A., Levine, A. J., Durvasula, R. S., Marion, S. D., et al. (2007). Drug use and medication adherence among HIV-1 infected individuals. AIDS and Behavior, 11(2), 185–194. doi: 10.1007/s10461-006-9152-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoffman, R. G., Cohen, M. A., Alfonso, C. A., Weiss, J. J., Jones, S., Keller, M., et al. (2003). Treatment of interferon-induced psychosis in patients with comorbid hepatitis C and HIV. Psychosomatics, 44(5), 417–420. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.44.5.417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Houston, E., Sandfort, T., Dolezal, C., & Carballo-Dieguez, A. (2012). Depressive symptoms among MSM who engage in bareback sex: Does mood matter? AIDS and Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10461-012-0156-7.
  70. Hriso, E., Kuhn, T., Masdeu, J. C., & Grundman, M. (1991). Extrapyramidal symptoms due to dopamine-blocking agents in patients with AIDS encephalopathy. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(11), 1558–1561.Google Scholar
  71. Johannessen, D. J., & Wilson, L. G. (1988). Mania with cryptococcal meningitis in two AIDS patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 49(5), 200–201.Google Scholar
  72. Kalichman, S. C., Kelly, J. A., Johnson, J. R., & Bulto, M. (1994). Factors associated with risk for HIV infection among chronic mentally ill adults. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(2), 221–227.Google Scholar
  73. Kapadia, F., Cook, J. A., Cohen, M. H., Sohler, N., Kovacs, A., Greenblatt, R. M., et al. (2005). The relationship between non-injection drug use behaviors on progression to AIDS and death in a cohort of HIV seropositive women in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy use. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 100(7), 990–1002. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01098.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Bahr, G. R., Brasfield, T. L., Davis, D. R., Hauth, A. C., et al. (1992). AIDS/HIV risk behavior among the chronic mentally ill. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 886–889.Google Scholar
  75. Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Bahr, G. R., Koob, J. J., Morgan, M. G., Kalichman, S. C., et al. (1993). Factors associated with severity of depression and high-risk sexual behavior among persons diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 12(3), 215–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kieburtz, K., Zettelmaier, A. E., Ketonen, L., Tuite, M., & Caine, E. D. (1991). Manic syndrome in AIDS. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(8), 1068–1070.Google Scholar
  77. Koblin, B. A., Husnik, M. J., Colfax, G., Huang, Y., Madison, M., Mayer, K., et al. (2006). Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS (London, England), 20(5), 731–739. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000216374.61442.55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Koenig, L. J., Pals, S. L., Chandwani, S., Hodge, K., Abramowitz, S., Barnes, W., et al. (2010). Sexual transmission risk behavior of adolescents with HIV acquired perinatally or through risky behaviors. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 55(3), 380–390. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f0ccb6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kowatch, R. A., & DelBello, M. P. (2006). Pediatric bipolar disorder: Emerging diagnostic and treatment approaches. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(1), 73–108. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2005.08.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lampinen, T. M., Mattheis, K., Chan, K., & Hogg, R. S. (2007). Nitrite inhalant use among young gay and bisexual men in vancouver during a period of increasing HIV incidence. BMC Public Health, 7, 35. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lehrer, J. A., Shrier, L. A., Gortmaker, S., & Buka, S. (2006). Depressive symptoms as a longitudinal predictor of sexual risk behaviors among US middle and high school students. Pediatrics, 118(1), 189–200. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leserman, J. (2008). Role of depression, stress, and trauma in HIV disease progression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5), 539–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Levine, A. B., Aaron, E. Z., & Criniti, S. M. (2008). Screening for depression in pregnant women with HIV infection. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 53(5), 352–356.Google Scholar
  84. Lombardi, D., Mizuno, L. T., & Thornberry, A. (2010). The use of the zung self-rating depression scale to assist in the case management of patients living with HIV/AIDS. Care Management Journals: Journal of Case Management; The Journal of Long Term Home Health Care, 11(4), 210–216.Google Scholar
  85. Lopes, M., Olfson, M., Rabkin, J., Hasin, D. S., Alegria, A. A., Lin, K. H., et al. (2012). Gender, HIV status, and psychiatric disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(3), 384–391. doi: 10.4088/JCP.10m06304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lowenhaupt, E. A., Matson, K., Qureishi, B., Saitoh, A., & Pugatch, D. (2007). Psychosis in a 12-year-old HIV-positive girl with an increased serum concentration of efavirenz. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 45(10), e128–e130. doi: 10.1086/522764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lucas, G. M., Cheever, L. W., Chaisson, R. E., & Moore, R. D. (2001). Detrimental effects of continued illicit drug use on the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 27(3), 251–259.Google Scholar
  88. Lucas, G. M., Griswold, M., Gebo, K. A., Keruly, J., Chaisson, R. E., & Moore, R. D. (2006). Illicit drug use and HIV-1 disease progression: A longitudinal study in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(5), 412–420. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lucas, G. M., Mullen, B. A., Weidle, P. J., Hader, S., McCaul, M. E., & Moore, R. D. (2006). Directly administered antiretroviral therapy in methadone clinics is associated with improved HIV treatment outcomes, compared with outcomes among concurrent comparison groups. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 42(11), 1628–1635. doi: 10.1086/503905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lwin, R., & Melvin, D. (2001). Paediatric HIV infection. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 42(4), 427–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lyketsos, C. G., Hanson, A. L., Fishman, M., Rosenblatt, A., McHugh, P. R., & Treisman, G. J. (1993). Manic syndrome early and late in the course of HIV. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(2), 326–327.Google Scholar
  92. Lyketsos, C. G., Schwartz, J., Fishman, M., & Treisman, G. (1997). AIDS mania. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9(2), 277–279.Google Scholar
  93. Mainie, I., McGurk, C., McClintock, G., & Robinson, J. (2001). Seizures after buproprion overdose. Lancet, 357(9268), 1624. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04770-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Malta, M., Bastos, F. I., da Silva, C. M., Pereira, G. F., Lucena, F. F., Fonseca, M. G., et al. (2009). Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A nation-wide comparison of injecting drug users versus men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 52(5), 629–635. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b31b8a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Malta, M., Strathdee, S. A., Magnanini, M. M., & Bastos, F. I. (2008). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: A systematic review. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 103(8), 1242–1257. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02269.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Martin, S. J., & Bowden, F. J. (2007). Ethambutol toxicity manifesting as acute onset psychosis. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 18(4), 287–288. doi: 10.1258/095646207780658863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McGowan, C. C., Weinstein, D. D., Samenow, C. P., Stinnette, S. E., Barkanic, G., Rebeiro, P. F., et al. (2011). Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in two U.S. clinic cohorts. PLoS One, 6(4), e18462. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McKinnon, K., Cournos, F., Sugden, R., Guido, J. R., & Herman, R. (1996). The relative contributions of psychiatric symptoms and AIDS knowledge to HIV risk behaviors among people with severe mental illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57(11), 506–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Meade, C. S. (2006). Sexual risk behavior among persons dually diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30(2), 147–157. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2005.11.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Meade, C. S., & Sikkema, K. J. (2005). Voluntary HIV testing among adults with severe mental illness: Frequency and associated factors. AIDS and Behavior, 9(4), 465–473. doi: 10.1007/s10461-005-9033-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mellins, C. A., Brackis-Cott, E., Dolezal, C., & Abrams, E. J. (2006). Psychiatric disorders in youth with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(5), 432–437. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000217372.10385.2a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mellins, C. A., Brackis-Cott, E., Leu, C. S., Elkington, K. S., Dolezal, C., Wiznia, A., et al. (2009). Rates and types of psychiatric disorders in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth and seroreverters. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(9), 1131–1138. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02069.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mellins, C. A., Smith, R., O’Driscoll, P., Magder, L. S., Brouwers, P., Chase, C., et al. (2003). High rates of behavioral problems in perinatally HIV-infected children are not linked to HIV disease. Pediatrics, 111(2), 384–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mellins, C. A., Tassiopoulos, K., Malee, K., Moscicki, A. B., Patton, D., Smith, R., et al. (2011). Behavioral health risks in perinatally HIV-exposed youth: Co-occurrence of sexual and drug use behavior, mental health problems, and nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 25(7), 413–422. doi: 10.1089/apc.2011.0025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Miguez-Burbano, M. J., Ashkin, D., Rodriguez, A., Duncan, R., Pitchenik, A., Quintero, N., et al. (2005). Increased risk of pneumocystis carinii and community-acquired pneumonia with tobacco use in HIV disease. International Journal of Infectious Diseases: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 9(4), 208–217. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mijch, A. M., Judd, F. K., Lyketsos, C. G., Ellen, S., & Cockram, A. (1999). Secondary mania in patients with HIV infection: Are antiretrovirals protective? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 11(4), 475–480.Google Scholar
  107. Misdrahi, D., Vila, G., Funk-Brentano, I., Tardieu, M., Blanche, S., & Mouren-Simeoni, M. C. (2004). DSM-IV mental disorders and neurological complications in children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1). European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 19(3), 182–184. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2003.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mitty, J. A., Macalino, G. E., Bazerman, L. B., Loewenthal, H. G., Hogan, J. W., MacLeod, C. J., et al. (2005). The use of community-based modified directly observed therapy for the treatment of HIV-infected persons. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 39(5), 545–550.Google Scholar
  109. Monahan, P. O., Shacham, E., Reece, M., Kroenke, K., Ong’or, W. O., Omollo, O., et al. (2009). Validity/reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 depression scales among adults living with HIV/AIDS in western Kenya. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(2), 189–197. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0846-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Morin, S. F., Myers, J. J., Shade, S. B., Koester, K., Maiorana, A., & Rose, C. D. (2007). Predicting HIV transmission risk among HIV-infected patients seen in clinical settings. AIDS and Behavior, 11(5 Suppl), S6–S16. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9253-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Murphy, D. A., Belzer, M., Durako, S. J., Sarr, M., Wilson, C. M., Muenz, L. R., et al. (2005). Longitudinal antiretroviral adherence among adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(8), 764–770. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.159.8.764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Murphy, D. A., Durako, S. J., Moscicki, A. B., Vermund, S. H., Ma, Y., Schwarz, D. F., & Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network. (2001). No change in health risk behaviors over time among HIV infected adolescents in care: Role of psychological distress. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 29(3 Suppl), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Murphy, D. A., Wilson, C. M., Durako, S. J., Muenz, L. R., Belzer, M., & Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network. (2001). Antiretroviral medication adherence among the REACH HIV-infected adolescent cohort in the USA. AIDS Care, 13(1), 27–40. doi: 10.1080/09540120020018161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nakimuli-Mpungu, E., Musisi, S., Mpungu, S. K., & Katabira, E. (2006). Primary mania versus HIV-related secondary mania in Uganda. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(8), 1349–1354. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.8.1349 (quiz 1480).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nurutdinova, D., Chrusciel, T., Zerinque, A., Scherrer, J. F., Al-Aly, Z., McDonald, J. R., et al. (2012). Mental health disorders and the risk of AIDS-defining illness and death in HIV-infected veterans. AIDS, 26(2), 229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. O’Dowd, M. A., & McKegney, F. P. (1988). Manic syndrome associated with zidovudine. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 260(24), 3587–3588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Olatunji, B. O., Mimiaga, M. J., O’Cleirigh, C., & Safren, S. A. (2006). Review of treatment studies of depression in HIV. Topics in HIV Medicine: A Publication of the International AIDS Society, USA, 14(3), 112–124.Google Scholar
  118. Ostrow, D. G., Plankey, M. W., Cox, C., Li, X., Shoptaw, S., Jacobson, L. P., et al. (2009). Specific sex drug combinations contribute to the majority of recent HIV seroconversions among MSM in the MACS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 51(3), 349–355. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181a24b20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Otto-Salaj, L. L., Heckman, T. G., Stevenson, L. Y., & Kelly, J. A. (1998). Patterns, predictors and gender differences in HIV risk among severely mentally ill men and women. Community Mental Health Journal, 34(2), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Palepu, A., Tyndall, M. W., Joy, R., Kerr, T., Wood, E., Press, N., et al. (2006). Antiretroviral adherence and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV/HCV co-infected injection drug users: The role of methadone maintenance therapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 84(2), 188–194. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pao, M., Lyon, M., D’Angelo, L. J., Schuman, W. B., Tipnis, T., & Mrazek, D. A. (2000). Psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 154(3), 240–244.Google Scholar
  122. Plankey, M. W., Ostrow, D. G., Stall, R., Cox, C., Li, X., Peck, J. A., et al. (2007). The relationship between methamphetamine and popper use and risk of HIV seroconversion in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 45(1), 85–92. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3180417c99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Porter, K., Babiker, A., Bhaskaran, K., Darbyshire, J., Pezzotti, P., Porter, K., et al. (2003). Determinants of survival following HIV-1 seroconversion after the introduction of HAART. Lancet, 362(9392), 1267–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Psaros, C., Israel, J., O’Cleirigh, C., Bedoya, C. A., & Safren, S. A. (2011). Psychological co-morbidities of HIV/AIDS. In S. Pagoto (Ed.), Psychological co-morbidities of physical illness: A behavioral medicine perspective (pp. 233–273). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Purohit, V., Rapaka, R. S., & Shurtleff, D. (2010). Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and drugs of abuse in post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: The Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology, 5(4), 507–515. doi: 10.1007/s11481-010-9242-7.Google Scholar
  126. Radcliffe, J., Fleisher, C. L., Hawkins, L. A., Tanney, M., Kassam-Adams, N., Ambrose, C., et al. (2007). Posttraumatic stress and trauma history in adolescents and young adults with HIV. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 21(7), 501–508. doi: 10.1089/apc.2006.0144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Repetto, M. J., & Petitto, J. M. (2008). Psychopharmacology in HIV-infected patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5), 585–592. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181777190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rodriguez-Arenas, M. A., Jarrin, I., del Amo, J., Iribarren, J. A., Moreno, S., Viciana, P., et al. (2006). Delay in the initiation of HAART, poorer virological response, and higher mortality among HIV-infected injecting drug users in Spain. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(8), 715–723. doi: 10.1089/aid.2006.22.715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R., & Butler, C. E. (2008). Motivational interviewing in health care. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  130. Romanelli, F., Jennings, H. R., Nath, A., Ryan, M., & Berger, J. (2000). Therapeutic dilemma: The use of anticonvulsants in HIV-positive individuals. Neurology, 54(7), 1404–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosenberg, S. D., Goodman, L. A., Osher, F. C., Swartz, M. S., Essock, S. M., Butterfield, M. I., et al. (2001). Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 91(1), 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rothbard, A. B., Miller, K., Lee, S., & Blank, M. (2009). Revised cost of estimates of Medicaid recipients with serious mental illness and HIV/AIDS. Psychiatric Services (Washington, DC), 60(7), 974–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Stein, J. A., & Lester, P. (2006). Adolescent adjustment over six years in HIV-affected families. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 39(2), 174–182. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.02.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Weiss, R., Alber, S., & Lester, P. (2005). Adolescent adjustment before and after HIV-related parental death. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(2), 221–228. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.2.221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sacks, M., Dermatis, H., Looser-Ott, S., & Perry, S. (1992). Seroprevalence of HIV and risk factors for AIDS in psychiatric inpatients. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 43(7), 736–737.Google Scholar
  136. Samet, J. H., Walley, A. Y., & Bridden, C. (2007). Illicit drugs, alcohol, and addiction in human immunodeficiency virus. Panminerva Medica, 49(2), 67–77.Google Scholar
  137. Sandelowski, M., Voils, C. I., Chang, Y., & Lee, E. J. (2009). A systematic review comparing antiretroviral adherence descriptive and intervention studies conducted in the USA. AIDS Care, 21(8), 953–966. doi: 10.1080/09540120802626212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Scharko, A. M. (2006). DSM psychiatric disorders in the context of pediatric HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care, 18(5), 441–445. doi: 10.1080/09540120500213487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schlebusch, L., & Vawda, N. (2010). HIV-infection as a self-reported risk factor for attempted suicide in South Africa. African Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schuster, R., Bornovalova, M., & Hunt, E. (2012). The influence of depression on the progression of HIV: Direct and indirect effects. Behavior Modification, 36(2), 123–145. doi: 10.1177/0145445511425231;10.1177/0145445511425231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sewell, D. D. (1996). Schizophrenia and HIV. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22(3), 465–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sewell, D. D., Jeste, D. V., Atkinson, J. H., Heaton, R. K., Hesselink, J. R., Wiley, C., et al. (1994). HIV-associated psychosis: A study of 20 cases. San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(2), 237–242.Google Scholar
  143. Simoni, J. M., Montgomery, A., Martin, E., New, M., Demas, P. A., & Rana, S. (2007). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for pediatric HIV infection: A qualitative systematic review with recommendations for research and clinical management. Pediatrics, 119(6), e1371–e1383. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Singh, A. N., Golledge, H., & Catalan, J. (1997). Treatment of HIV-related psychotic disorders with risperidone: A series of 21 cases. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(5), 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Smith-Rohrberg, D., Mezger, J., Walton, M., Bruce, R. D., & Altice, F. L. (2006). Impact of enhanced services on virologic outcomes in a directly administered antiretroviral therapy trial for HIV-infected drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 43(Suppl. 1), S48–S53. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000248338.74943.85.Google Scholar
  146. Spiegel, H. M., & Futterman, D. C. (2009). Adolescents and HIV: Prevention and clinical care. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 6(2), 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Spire, B., Lucas, G. M., & Carrieri, M. P. (2007). Adherence to HIV treatment among IDUs and the role of opioid substitution treatment (OST). The International Journal on Drug Policy, 18(4), 262–270. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.12.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stahl, S. M., Mignon, L., & Meyer, J. M. (2009). Which comes first: Atypical antipsychotic treatment or cardiometabolic risk? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119(3), 171–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01334.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stuber, M. L., & Shemesh, E. (2006). Post-traumatic stress response to life-threatening illnesses in children and their parents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(3), 597–609. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2006.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tegger, M. K., Crane, H. M., Tapia, K. A., Uldall, K. K., Holte, S. E., & Kitahata, M. M. (2008). The effect of mental illness, substance use, and treatment for depression on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 22(3), 233–243. doi: 10.1089/apc.2007.0092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Treisman, G., & Angelino, A. (2007). Interrelation between psychiatric disorders and the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 45(Suppl. 4), S313–S317. doi: 10.1086/522556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tubman, J. G., Gil, A. G., Wagner, E. F., & Artigues, H. (2003). Patterns of sexual risk behaviors and psychiatric disorders in a community sample of young adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26(5), 473–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. UNAIDS. (2011). UNAIDS world AIDS day report 2011 (No. JC2216E). Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2011/JC2216_WorldAIDSday_report_2011_en.pdf
  154. Van Dyke, R. B., Lee, S., Johnson, G. M., Wiznia, A., Mohan, K., Stanley, K., et al. (2002). Reported adherence as a determinant of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in children who have human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics, 109(4), e61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Vanable, P. A., Carey, M. P., Carey, K. B., & Maisto, S. A. (2007). Differences in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among psychiatric outpatients with and without a history of a sexually transmitted infection. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 33(1–2), 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Walkup, J., Crystal, S., & Sambamoorthi, U. (1999). Schizophrenia and major affective disorder among Medicaid recipients with HIV/AIDS in New Jersey. American Journal of Public Health, 89(7), 1101–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Walkup, J., McAlpine, D. D., Olfson, M., Boyer, C., & Hansell, S. (2000). Recent HIV testing among general hospital inpatients with schizophrenia: Findings from four New York City sites. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 71(2), 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Walkup, J., Sambamoorthi, U., & Crystal, S. (2001). Incidence and consistency of antiretroviral use among HIV-infected Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(3), 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Williams, P. L., Storm, D., Montepiedra, G., Nichols, S., Kammerer, B., Sirois, P. A., et al. (2006). Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral medications in children and adolescents with HIV infection. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1745–e1757. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wise, M. E., Mistry, K., & Reid, S. (2002). Drug points: Neuropsychiatric complications of nevirapine treatment. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 324(7342), 879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wodak, A., & Cooney, A. (2006). Do needle syringe programs reduce HIV infection among injecting drug users: A comprehensive review of the international evidence. Substance Use & Misuse, 41(6–7), 777–813. doi: 10.1080/10826080600669579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wolters, P. L., & Brouwers, P. (2005). Neurobehavioral function and assessment of children and adolescents with HIV-1 infection. In S. L. Zeichner & J. S. Read (Eds.), Textbook for pediatric care (pp. 269–284). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wong, W., Chaw, J. K., Kent, C. K., & Klausner, J. D. (2005). Risk factors for early syphilis among gay and bisexual men seen in an STD clinic: San Francisco, 2002–2003. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(7), 458–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yanofski, J., & Croarkin, P. (2008). Choosing antidepressants for HIV and AIDS patients: Insights on safety and side effects. Psychiatry (Edgmont (PA: Township)), 5(5), 61–66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Kovalski Busby
    • 1
  • Sarah Lytle
    • 1
  • Martha Sajatovic
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations