Constructal Design of T-Shaped Water Distribution Networks

  • P. BieupoudeEmail author
  • Y. Azoumah
  • P. Neveu
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


More than one billion people do not have access to clean drinking water both in urban and rural areas in the world. This is why, according to a number of scientists involved in drinking water engineering, hundreds of kilometers of networks for water distribution will be constructed or rehabilitated in the coming decades because of both population growth and the crucial need of water services. Therefore the need to optimally design these systems will be increasing everywhere (North and South) and will keep on increasing, in particular in developing countries, very poorly equipped and in need to make strong efforts for the construction of such systems. According to literature, the three main design constraints that are generally met in water distribution projects are water quality, pumping energy, and investment cost [1–4]. In most of the cases, the design problem formulates as follows: “a certain population of density \( {\sigma_{\rm{p}}} \) grouped in households, distributed over a given area, needs to be supplied in drinking water through a distribution network. A lot of technically acceptable solutions can be found to this problem. Some methods differ from the others in terms of total head losses, overall residence time, initial or total investment due to the design” [5]. The challenge for engineers relies on how to optimally design the network in terms of pumping energy and the evolution of water quality in the network.



The International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering 2iE, 01 BP 594 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso (, and its financial partners are gratefully acknowledged for their supports that permitted to successfully achieve this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LESEE-2iE, Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d’EnergieInstitut International d’Ingénierie de l’Eau et de l’Environnement, 01Ouagadougou 01Burkina Faso
  2. 2.Laboratoire Procédés Matériaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES-CNRS UPR 8521Université de PerpignanPerpignan cedexFrance

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