Leaf Shapes and Venation Patterns

  • A. H. ReisEmail author
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


Plant life is fuelled by solar radiation through photosynthesis, by processes in which leaves act as power generators, main factories, and dispensers of organic substances. Leaves store energy in organic compounds (mainly carbohydrates) that are redistributed within the plant system, thus keeping all metabolic and transport processes active and maintaining and developing plant structure. Water availability is essential both for metabolic processes and for keeping the sap flowing throughout the whole plant system.


Humid Environment Leaf Shape Leaf Margin Resistivity Ratio Venation Pattern 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and Évora Geophysics CentreUniversity of ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

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