Endovascular procedures are an integral part of the practice of vascular surgery. Advances over the last 4 decades, and particularly over the last 20 years, have changed the scope of vascular practice and the treatment of vascular disease. Endovascular techniques were initially only useful in patients with less severe anatomical patterns of disease (e.g., focal stenosis of the iliac or superficial femoral artery). The evolution of techniques, equipment, and attitudes has yielded the current situation in which endovascular intervention is viewed as a reasonable first approach and/or alternative in the treatment of most vascular lesions. Developments in catheters, guidewires, stents, endografts, distal protection devices, and CTO devices and advancing knowledge about how to use them offer promise for further advancements in the next few years.
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