Thrombophilia refers to the tendency toward thrombosis that may have an inherited component which predisposes toward thrombosis but requires interaction with other components before the onset of the clinical disorder. Thrombosis occurs when there is an imbalance between the two classic coagulation pathways that lead to stable fibrin cross-linking and the native anticoagulant and fibrinolytic systems that inhibit or degrade clot formation.
Many factors associated with arterial or venous thrombosis are increased with age and trauma and are preventable with appropriate prophylaxis with heparin, or compression devices in high-risk groups. May-Thurner and Paget-Schroetter syndromes are due to compression of the iliac or subclavian veins, respectively, that may lead to thrombosis. Several diseases associated with a hypercoagulable state include cancer, essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, treated HIV infections and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
The management of thrombosis includes anticoagulants, vena cava filters, endovascular mechanical devices, and thrombolytics.
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