A Measure of Resilience with Contextual Sensitivity—The CYRM-28: Exploring the Tension Between Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in Resilience Theory and Research

  • Michael Ungar
  • Linda Liebenberg
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)


In this chapter, we build on three propositions regarding the concept of resilience. First, we understand resilience to refer to coping under stress, and therefore a description of populations who do well when facing adversity. The term is not the same as the processes that contribute to positive development across an entire population, nor the everyday qualities that promote well-being. In fact research shows that the mechanisms that are protective under stress operate differently depending on the amount of adversity individuals and their families or communities experience (Rutter, 2009; Ungar, 2011). An external asset such as a mentor is going to account for far more of the change in a child’s development trajectory if the child has been exposed to severe and persistent neglect (Gilligan, 1999; Larson, 2006), just as an internal asset like persistence is more advantageous to a child whose schools are inadequately funded, or if she is excluded because of cultural norms regarding gender and education (Shin, Daly, & Vera, 2007).


Marital Satisfaction Individual Quality Positive Development Protective Process Early School Leaving 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Resilience Research CentreDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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