Conclusion: Coping Strategies, Emerging Challenges and Opportunities

  • Alexander KraussaEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Economics book series (BRIEFSECONOMICS, volume 49)


Why is it so important to gain a better understanding of the specific sources of educational exclusion in Ghana and to outline a number of reforms needed for its reduction? The answer appears obvious: to allow every child to complete at least the basic cycle of education and thus to improve equitable human and economic development and the living conditions of Ghanaians. However, well over one million children of basic school age are still outside the school system. By exploring political, economic, geographic, health and demographic factors affecting the education sector of today and tomorrow, the main purpose of the analysis has been to identify the conditions and characteristics of these out-of-school children and of educationally disadvantaged youth and young adults, the root causes of their vulnerability and exclusion and thereby help to inform decision-makers and actors who draft and implement public policy of possible ways to achieve universal education and promote more equitable skills development in Ghana.


Basic Education Education Sector Basic Cycle Education Expenditure Budgetary Share 
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Copyright information

© Alexander Krauss 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The World Bank GroupWashingtonUSA

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