Calcium Influx Through Reversed NCX Controls Migration of Microglia
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Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are busy and vigilant guards of the adult brain, which scan brain parenchyma for damage and activate in response to lesions. Release of danger signals/chemoattractants at the site of damage initiates microglial activation and stimulates migration. The main candidate for a chemoattractant sensed by microglia is adenosine triphosphate (ATP); however, many other substances can have similar effects. Some neuropeptides such as angiotensin II, bradykinin, endothelin, galanin and neurotensin are also chemoattractants for microglia. Among them, bradykinin increases microglial migration using mechanism distinct from that of ATP. Bradykinin-induced migration is controlled by a Gi/o-protein-independent pathway, while ATP-induced migration involves Gi/o proteins as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway. Galanin was reported to share certain signalling cascades with bradykinin; however, this overlap is only partial. Bradykinin, for example, stimulates Ca2+ influx through the reversed Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX), whereas galanin induces intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-dependent Ca2+ release from the intracellular store. These differences in signal cascades indicate that different chemoattractants such as ATP, bradykinin and galanin control distinct microglial functions in pathological conditions such as lesion and inflammation and NCX contributes to a special case of microglial migration.
KeywordsATP Bradykinin Calcium influx Galanin Neuropeptides Reverse mode Sodium-calcium exchanger
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