Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Methomyl

  • April R. Van Scoy
  • Monica Yue
  • Xin Deng
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 222)

Abstract

The insecticide methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)thioacetimidate; CAS 16752-77-5; Fig. 1) was first introduced by E.I. du Pont de Nemours in 1968 (US EPA, 1998b). In 1978, the US Environmental Protection Agency classified methomyl as a restricted-use pesticide (RUP; US EPA 1998a); currently 15 registered products are categorized as such (US EPA 1998b). Further restrictions were implemented in 1995, limiting use to certain agricultural production areas, requiring addition of an embittering agent during formulation and requiring the use of bait stations (US EPA 1998a). Within the USA, approx. 262,000 kg of methomyl (a.i.) was applied on agricultural crops annually from 1999 to 2004 (US EPA 2010). However, estimates for the period between 2001 and 2007 show annual average usage of approx. 363,000 kg (a.i.); major crop uses included sweet corn, lettuce, onions, and tomatoes (US EPA 2010). In 2007, some 227,711 kg of active ingredient was applied in California alone (CDPR 2007).

Keywords

Clay TiO2 Hydrolysis Toxicity Ozonation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Branch of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), California Environmental Protection Agency, under contract No. 10-C0102. The statements and conclusions are those of the authors and not necessarily those of CDPR. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with materials reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products. Special thanks to Kean Goh for his assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • April R. Van Scoy
    • 1
  • Monica Yue
    • 2
  • Xin Deng
    • 2
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pesticide RegulationCalifornia Environmental Protection AgencySacramentoUSA

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