# Studying Learners in Intercultural Contexts

## Abstract

Researchers have increasingly recognized that learning mathematics is a cultural activity. At the same time, research aims, technological advances, and methodological techniques have diversified, enabling more detailed analyses of learners and learning to take place. Increased opportunities to study learners in different cultural, social and political settings have also become available, with ease of access to results of international benchmark testing online. Large-scale quantitative studies in the form of international benchmark tests like Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and detailed multi-source (including video) qualitative studies like the international Learners’ Perspective Study (LPS), have enabled a broad range of research questions to be investigated. This chapter points to the usefulness of large-scale quantitative studies for stimulating questions that require qualitative research designs for their exploration. Qualitative research has raised awareness of the importance of socio-cultural and historical cultural perspectives when considering learning. This raises questions about uses that could be made of “local” theories in undertaking intercultural analyses.

### Keywords

Malaysia Conglomerate OECD Harness### References

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