Effects of Brain Gangliosides on Functional Recovery in Experimental Regeneration and Reinnervation

  • B. Ceccarelli
  • F. Aporti
  • M. Finesso
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 71)


There is now an increasing body of evidence to support the idea that Cns and Pns gangliosides may play an important functional role in various nervous tissues although their precise role has not yet been elucidated. There is also good biochemical evidence that gangliosides are highly concentrated in the nerve terminals, most of them associated with the nerve terminal plasma membrane (Burton, 1976; De Robertis et al. 1976; Morgan et al. 1976), nevertheless any clear relationship between the subcellular distribution of gangliosides within the different nerve terminal membranes and the normal chain of events involved in transmitter release and the overall synaptic economy has not been yet established. In spite of these uncertainties we thought that it might be useful to test the effects of gangliosides during the process of nerve regeneration and reinnervation of target tissues.


Functional Recovery Untreated Animal Superior Cervical Ganglion Nictitate Membrane Ocular Sign 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheson G.H. (1938). The topographical anatomy of the smooth muscle of the cat’s nictitating membrane. Anat.-Rec. 71, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aporti F. and Finesso M.; Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  3. Burton R.M. (1976). Gangliosides and proteins of brain synaptic components. This Volume.Google Scholar
  4. Butson A.R.C. (1950). Regeneration of the cervical sympathetic. Br.J.Surg. 38, 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ceccarelli B., Clementi F. and Mantegazza P. (1971). Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibers. J.Physiol. 216, 87–98.Google Scholar
  6. Ceccarelli B., Clementi F. and Mantegazza P. (1972). Adrenergic reinnervation of smooth muscle of nictitating membrane by preganglionic sympathetic fibers. J.Physiol. 220, 211–227.Google Scholar
  7. Cervoni P., West T.C. and Fink L.D. (1956). Autonomic post-ganglionic innervation of the nictitating membrane of the cat. J.Pharmac. Exp. Ther. 116. 90–97.Google Scholar
  8. De Robertis E., Lapetina E.G. and Sara Fiszer de Plazas (1976). Subcellular distribution and possible ro le of gangliosides in the CNS. This volume.Google Scholar
  9. Esterhuisen A.C., Graham J.D.P., Lever J.D. and Spriggs, T.L.B. (1967). The innervation of the smooth muscle of the nictitating membrane of the cat. J.Physiol. 192, 41–42 P.Google Scholar
  10. Esterhuizen A.C., Graham J.D.P., Lever J.D. and Spriggs T.L.B. (1968). Catecholamine and acetylcholinesterase distribution in relation to noradrenaline release. An enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic study on the innervation of the cat nictitating muscle. Br.J.Pharmac.Chemother. 32, 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Falck B., Hillarp N.A., Thieme G. and Tarp A. (1962). Fluorescence of catecholamines and related compounds condensed with formaldehyde. J.Histochern. Cytochem. 10, 348–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fleming W.W., McPhillips J.J. and Westfall D.P. (1973). Postjunctional supersensitivity and subsensitivity of excitable tissues to drugs. In Reviews of Physiology, 68 pp.55–119. Berlin:. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  13. Gardiner J.E., Hellmann K. and Thompson J.W. (1962). The nature of the innervation of the smooth muscle, Harderian gland and blood vessels of the cat’s nictitating membrane. J.Physiol. 163, 436–456.Google Scholar
  14. Gibson W.C. (1940). Degeneration and regeneration of sympathetic synapses. J.Neurophysiol. 3, 237–247.Google Scholar
  15. Guth L. (1956). Regeneration in the mammalian peripheral nervous system. Physiol.Rev. 36, 441–477.Google Scholar
  16. Hamori J., Lang, Eszter and Simon L. (1968). Experimental degeneration of the preganglionic fibers in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat. Z.Zell-forsch.mikrosk.Anat. 90, 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hillarp N.-A. (1960). Peripheral autonomic mechanisms. In Handbook of Physiology, vol.2.Sec.1, ed.Field, J.Am. Physiol. Soc, Washington pp.979–1006.Google Scholar
  18. Hunt C.C. and Nelson P.G. (1965). Structural and functional changes in the frog sympathetic ganglion following cutting of the presynaptic nerve fibers. J. Physiol. 177, 1–20.Google Scholar
  19. Langer S.Z., Draskoczy P.R. and Trendelenburg U. (1967). Time course of the development of supersensitivity to various amines in the nictitating membrane of the pithed cat after denervation of decentralization. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 157, 255–273.Google Scholar
  20. Langley J.N. (1897). On the regeneration of preganglionic and of post-ganglionic visceral nerve fibers. J.Physiol. 22, 215–230.Google Scholar
  21. Machida K. (1929). Observations on the degeneration and regeneration of postganglionic nerve fibers. Bull. John Hopkins Hosp. 45, 247–263.Google Scholar
  22. Morgan J.G., Tettamanti G. and Combos G. (1976). Biochemical evidence on the role of gangliosides in nerve-endings. This volume.Google Scholar
  23. Olson L. and Malmfors T. (1970). Growth characteristics of adrenergic nerves in the adult rat. Acta Physiol. Scand.Suppl. 248, 1–112.Google Scholar
  24. Raisman G., Field P.M., Ostberg A.J.C., Iversen L.L. and Zigmond R.E. (1974). A quantitative unltrastructural and biochemical analysis.of the process of reinnervation of the superior cervical ganglion in the adult rat. Brain Res. 71, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Simeone F.A. (1937). The effect of regeneration of the nerve supply on the sensitivity of the denervated nictitating membrane to adrenine. Am.J.Physiol. 120, 466–474.Google Scholar
  26. Sotelo C. (1968). Permanence of postsynaptic specializations in the frog sympathetic ganglion cells after dener vation. Expl.Brain Res. 6, 294–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Spriggs T.L.B., Lever J.D., Rees P.M. and Graham J.D.P. (1966). Controlled formaldehyde-catecholamine condensation in cryostat sections to show adrenergic nerves by fluorescence. Stain Technol. 41, 323–327.Google Scholar
  28. Thompson J.W. (1958). Studies on the responses of the isolated nictitating membrane of the cat. J.Physiol.141. 46–72.Google Scholar
  29. Thompson J.W. (1961). The nerve supply to the nictitating membrane of the cat. J.Anat. 95, 371–385.Google Scholar
  30. Trendelenburg U. (1963). Time course of changes in sensitivity after denervation of the nictitating membrane of the spinal cat. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 142, 335–342.Google Scholar
  31. Van Orden L.S.III., Bensch K.G., Langer S.Z. and Trende lenburg U. (1967). Histochemical and fine structural as pects of the onset of denervation supersensitivity in the nictitating membrane of the spinal cat. J.Pharmac. Exp.Ther. 157, 274–283.Google Scholar
  32. Weiner N., Langer S.Z. and Trendelenburg U. (1967). Demonstration by the histochemical fluorescence method of the prolonged disappearance of catecholamines from the denervated nictitating membrane of the cat. J.Pharmac. Exp.Ther. 157, 284–289.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Ceccarelli
    • 1
  • F. Aporti
    • 2
  • M. Finesso
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology C.N.R. Center of CytopharmacologyUniversity of MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Fidia Res.LaboratoryAbano TermePadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations