Introduction to Teeth

  • Zhong-Rong Zhou
  • Hai-Yang Yu
  • Jing Zheng
  • Lin-Mao Qian
  • Yu Yan
Chapter

Abstract

Human teeth are not only an important masticatory organ but also closely associated with both the pronunciation and facial aesthetics of humans. Without a doubt, teeth play an extremely significant role in our daily life. The wear of teeth, either natural or artificial, is unavoidable. However, excessive wear may lead to a lack of perfect contact between opposite teeth, a disturbance in the efficiency of the masticatory system, and an obliteration of chewing surfaces. Teeth also play a very important role in animals’ lives. Historically, the wear of teeth has been considered an indicator of age for animals.

Keywords

Sugar Fatigue Dust Europe Foam 

References

  1. 1.
    Dowson D (1998) History of tribology. Professional Engineering Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hair L, Stolarsk TA, Vowlest RW, Lloyd CH (1996) Wear: mechanisms, manifestations and measurement, report of a workshop. J Dent 24(1–2):141–148Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Franek F, Bartz WJ, Pauschitz A (eds) (2001) In: The proceedings of the 2nd world tribology congress, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kimura Y (ed) (2009) In: proceedings of the 4th world tribology congress, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dowson D (2009) A tribological day. In: Proceedings of the IMech, Part J: J Eng Tribol 223:261–273Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Murakami T (ed) (2011) In: Proceedings of the 6th international biotribology forum, FukuokaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cann PM (ed) (2011) In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on biotribology, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mair LH (1992) Wear in dentistry–current terminology. J Dent 20:140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dahl BL, Carlsson GE, Ekfeldt A (1993) Occlusal wear of teeth and restorative materials. Acta Odontol Scand 51:299–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kellecher M, Bishop K (1999) Tooth surface loss: an overview. Br Dent J 186(2):61–66Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Imfeld T (1996) Dental erosion: definition, classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci 104:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grippo JO, Simring M, Schreiner S (2004) Attrition, abrasion, corrosion and abfraction revisited: a new perspective on tooth surface lesions. J Am Dent Assoc 135:1109–1118Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR, Moxham BJ (1977) A color atlas and textbook of oral anatomy. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Braden M (1976) Biophysics of the tooth. Front Oral Physiol 2:1–37Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gwinnett AJ (1992) Structure and composition of enamel. Oper Dent (Supp. 5):10–17Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Habelitz S, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW, Balooch M (2001) Mechanical properties of human dental enamel on the nanometre scale. Arch Oral Biol 39:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taher SM (2000) A specimen preparation technique to study the organic phase of tooth enamel under scanning electron microscopy. Mater Res Bull 35:1725–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cuy JL, Mann AB, Livi KJ, Teaford MF, Weihs TP (2002) Nanoindentation mapping of the mechanical properties of human molar tooth enamel. Arch Oral Biol 47:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu HHK, Smith DT, Jahanmir S, Romberg E, Kelly JR, Thompson VP, Rekow ED (1998) Indentation damage and mechanical properties of human enamel and dentin. J Dent Res 77(3):472–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zheng J, Zhou ZR, Zhang J, Li H, Yu HY (2003) On the friction and wear behaviour of human tooth enamel and dentin. Wear 255:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yettram AL, Wright KWJ, Pickard HM (1976) Finite element stress analysis of the crowns of normal and restored teeth. J Dent Res 1976(55):1004–1011Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mjör IA (1972) Human coronal dentine: structure and reactions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 33:810–823Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goel VK, Khera SC, Ralston JL, Chang KH (1991) Stresses at the dentin-enamel junction of human teeth. A finite element investigation. J Prosthet Dent 66:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lin CP, Douglas WH (1994) Structure–property relations and crack resistance at the bovine dentin junction. J Dent Res 73:1072–1078Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang RZ, Weiner S (1998) Strain-structure relations in human teeth using Moire fringes. J Biomech 31:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce RS (2005) Wear of human teeth: a tribological perspective. J Eng Tribol 219:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sajewicz E, Kulesza Z (2007) A new tribometer for friction and wear studies of dental materials and hard tooth tissues. Tribol Int 40:885–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mair LH, Strlarski TA, Vowles RW, Lloyd CH (1996) Wear: mechanisms, manifestations and measurement. Report of a workshop. J Dent 24:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    DeLong R (2006) Inter-oral restorative materials wear: rethinking the current approaches: how to measure wear. Dent Mater 22:702–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    DeLong R, Douglas WH (1991) An artificial oral environment for testing dental materials. IEET Trans Biomed Eng 38:339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu X, Harrington E, Marquis PM, Shortall AC (1999) The influence of cyclic loading on the wear of a dental, composite. Biomaterials 20:907–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Gee AJ, Pallav P, Davidson CL (1986) Effect of abrasion medium on wear of stress-bearing composites and amalgam in vitro. J Dent Res 65:654–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waters NE (1980) Some mechanical and physical properties of teeth. In: Vincent JFV, Currey D (eds) Mechanical properties of biological material. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 99–135Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hagberg C (1987) Assessment of bite force: a review. J Craniomandib Disord 1:162–169Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rees JS, Jagger DC (2003) Abfraction lesions: myth or reality? J Esthet Restor Dent 15:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Every RG, Kuhne WG (1971) Biomodal wear of mammalian teeth. In: Kermack DM, Kermack KA (eds) Early mammals. Academic, London, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Addy M, Hunter ML (2003) Can tooth brushing damage your health? Effects on oral and dental tissues. Int Dent J 53:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hunter J (1778) The natural history of human teeth, Part I and Part II, 2nd edn.. J. Johnson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Darby ET (1892) Dental erosion and the gouty diathesis: are they usually associated? Dent Cosm 34:629–640Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lynch JB, Bell J (1947) Dental erosion in workers exposed to inorganic acid fume. Br J Ind Med 4:84–86Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Elsbury WB, Browne RC, Boyes J (1951) Erosion of teeth due to tartaric acid dust. Br J Ind Med 8:179–180Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eccles JD (1982) Tooth surface loss from abrasion, attrition and erosion. Dent Update 9:373–381Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith BGN, Robb ND (1989) Dental erosion in patients with chronic alcoholism. J Dent 17:219–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ten Bruggen Cate HJ (1968) Dental erosion in industry. Br J Ind Med 25:249–266Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Davis WB, Winter PJ (1980) The effect of abrasion on enamel and dentine after exposure to dietary acid. Br Dent J 148:253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Attin T, Koidl U, Buchalla W, Schaller HG, Kielbass AM, Hellwig E (1997) Correlation of microhardness and wear of different eroded enamel. Arch Oral Biol 42:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Featherstone JDB (1983) Remineralization of artificial carious lesion in vivo and in vitro. In: Leach SA, Edgar WM (eds) Demineralisation and remineralisation of the teeth. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 89–110Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edwards M, Ashwood RA, Littlewood SJ, Brocklebank LM, Fung DE (1998) A videofluoroscopic comparison of straw and cup drink: the potential influence on dental erosion. Br Dent J 185:244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jaeggi T, Lussi A (1999) Toothbrush abrasion of erosively altered enamel after intraoral exposure to saliva: an in situ study. Carious Res 33:455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Attin T, Knofel S, Buchalla W, Tutuncu R (2001) In situ evaluation of different remineralization periods to decrease brushing abrasion of demineralized enamel. Caries Res 35:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bardsley PF, Taylor S, Milosevic A (2004) Epidemiological studies of tooth wear and dental erosion in 14-year-old children in northwest England. Part 1: the relationship with water fluoridation and social deprivation. Br Dent J 197(7):413–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Devlin H, Bassiouny A, Boston D (2006) Hardness of enamel exposed to Coca-Cola and artificial saliva. J Oral Rehabil 33:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tantbirojn D, Huang A, Ericson MD, Poolthong S (2008) Change in surface hardness of enamel by a cola drink and a CPP-ACP paste. J Dent 36:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Levy SM et al (2003) Fluoride, beverages and dental caries in the primary dentition. Caries Res 37:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marshall TA et al (2003) Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children. Pediatrics 112:e184–e191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stookey GK (2008) The effect of saliva on dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc 139:11s–17sGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    von der Fehr FR (1965) Maturation and remineralisation of enamel. Adv Fluorine Res 3:83–95Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nederfors T et al (1993) Oral mucosal friction and subjective perception of dry mouth in relation to salivary secretion. Scand J Dent Res 101:44–48Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gao SS et al (2009) Effect of gallic acid on the wear behavior of early carious enamel. Biomed Mater 4:034101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gao SS et al (2010) Nanoscratch resistance of human tooth enamel treated by Nd: YAG laser irradiation. J Eng Tribol 224:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Poggio C et al (2009) Protective effect on enamel demineralization of a CPP-ACP paste: an AFM in vitro study. J Dent 37:949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shen P et al (2001) Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugarfree chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. J Dent Res 80:2066–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reynolds EC (1997) Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by casein phosphopeptide-stabilized calcium phosphate solutions. J Dent Res 76:1587–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Reynolds EC et al (2003) Retention in plaque and remineralization of enamel lesions by various forms of calcium in a mouthrinse or sugar-free chewing gum. J Dent Res 82:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miller WD (1907) Experimental and observation on the wasting of tooth tissue variously designated as erosion, abrasion, chemical abrasion, denudation, etc. Dent Cosmos 49(1):1–23Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Siffre A (1914) L’usure des dents chez les préhistorique. Bull Mém Soc Anthropol 6:10–31, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Head J (1917) Modern dentistry. W.B. Saunders & Co., PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Van Der Merve SW (1927) Some aspects of modern dentifrices. J Dent Res 7:327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ray KW, Chaden HC (1933) The abrasive powder of toothpaste. Dent Cosmos 75:1070Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wright HN, Fenske EL (1937) Relative abrasive properties of the more commonly used dentifrices abrasives. J Am Dent Assoc 24:1889Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smith ML (1939) Testing dentifrices abrasives. Ind Eng Chem Anal Ed 11(3):155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Manly RY (1944) Factors influencing tests on abrasion of dentin by brushing with dentifrice. J Dent Res 23:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tainter ML, Epstein S (1941) A standard procedure for determining abrasion by dentifrices. J Dent Res 20:583–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tainter ML, Epstein S, Klein A (1943) The determination of particles size in dentifrice powder. J Am Coll Dent 10:23Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Epstein S, Tainter ML (1943) Abrasion of teeth by commercial dentifrices. J Am Dent Assoc 30:1036Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Epstein S, Tainter ML (1943) The relationship of particles size and other properties of dentifrice ingredients to toothbrush-abrasion of enamel. J Dent Res 22:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tallgren A (1957) Change in adult face height due to ageing, wear and loss of teeth and prosthetic treatment. Acta Odontol Scand 15(24):310–311Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wright KH (1969) The abrasive wear resistance of human dental tissues. Wear 14:263–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Powers JM, Craig RG, Ludema KC (1973) Wear of dental enamel. Wear 23:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Weatherell JA, Robinson C, Hallsworth AS (1972) Changes in the fluoride concentration of the labial enamel surface with age. Caries Res 6:312–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Weatherell JA, Hallsworth AS, Robinson C (1973) The effect of tooth wear on the distribution of fluoride in the enamel surface of human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 18:1175–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Graf H, Zander HA (1963) Tooth contact patterns in mastication. J Prosthet Dent 13:1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xhonga FA (1977) Bruxism and its effect on the teeth. J Oral Rehabil 4:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carlsson GE, Johansson A, Lundquist S (1985) Occlusal wear. Acta Odontol Scand 43:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eccles JD, Jenkins WG (1974) Dental erosion and diet. J Dentistry 2:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Eccles JD (1979) Dental erosion of non-industrial original, a clinical survey and classification. J Prosthet Dent 42:649–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Smith AJ, Shaw L (1987) Baby fruit juices and tooth erosion. Br Dent J 162:65–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roulet F, Mettler P, Friedrich U (1980) Ein klinischer vergleich dreier komposites mit amalgam fur klasse-II-fullungen unter besonderer berucksichtigung der abrasion, resultate nach 2 Jahren. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 90:18–30Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Molnar S, McKee JK, Molar IM, Przybeck TR (1983) Tooth wear rates among contemporary Australian aborigines. J Dent Res 62:562–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lambrechts P, Braem M, Vuylsteke-Wauters M, Vanherle G (1989) Quantitative in vitro wear of human enamel. J Dent Res 68(12):1752–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nystrom M, Kononem M, Alaluusua S, Evalahti M, Vartiovaara J (1990) Development of horizontal tooth wear in maxillary anterior teeth from five to 18 years of age. J Dent Res 69:1765–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pintado MR, Anderson GC, DeLong R, Douglas H (1997) Variation in tooth wear in young adults over a two-year period. J Prosthet Dent 77(3):313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Teaford MF, Tylenda CA (1991) A new approach to the study of tooth wear. J Dent Res 70(3):204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kaidonis JA, Richards LC, Townsend GC, Tansley GD (1998) Wear of human enamel: a quantitative in vitro assessment. J Dent Res 77(12):1983–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hunter M, Addy M, Pickles M, Joiner A (2002) The role of toothpastes and toothbrushes in the aetiology of tooth wear. Int Dent J 52(5):399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Addy M (2005) Tooth brushing, tooth wear and dentine hypersensitivity—are they associated? Int Dent J 55(4):261–267Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Arseculatatne JA, Hoffman M (2010) On the wear mechanism of human dental enamel. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 3:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Arseculatatne JA, Hoffman M (2012) Ceramic-like wear behaviour of human dental enamel. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 8:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Taylor RMS (1963) Cause and effects of wear and teeth. Acta Anat 53:97–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Molnar S (1970) Human tooth wear, tooth function and cultural variability. Am J Phys Anthropol 34:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Owen Lovejoy C (1985) Dental wear in the Libben population: its functional pattern and role in the determination of adult skeletal age at death. Am J Phys Anthropol 38:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kaidonis JA, Townsend GC (1992) Brief communication: interproximal tooth wear: a new observation. Am J Phys Anthropol 88:105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schwarz WH (1987) The rheology of saliva. J Dent Res 66:660–666Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mandel ID (1987) The functions of saliva. J Dent Res 66:623–627Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Li H, Zhou ZR (2002) Wear behaviour of human teeth in dry and artificial saliva conditions. Wear 249:980–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Berg ICH, Rutland MW, Arnebrant T (2003) Lubricating properties of the initial salivary pellicle: an AFM study. Biofouling 19(6):365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bongaerts JHH, Rossetti D, Stokes JR (2007) The lubricating properties of human whole saliva. Tribol Letter 27:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
  109. 109.
  110. 110.
  111. 111.
  112. 112.
  113. 113.
    Baker G, Jones LHP, Wardrop ID (1959) Cause of wear in sheep’s teeth. Nature 184:1583–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Fuller WA (1959) The bones and teeth as indicators of age in bison. J Wildl Manag 23:342–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Welsch U (1967) Tooth wear in living pongids. J Dent Res 46:989–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ainamo J (1971) Prenatal occlusal wear in guinea pig molars. Scand J Dent Res 79:69–71Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Van Delen TR, Hollis KM, Anchor C, Etter DR (2000) Sex affects age determination and wear of molariform teeth in white-tailed deer. J Wildl Manag 64:1076–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walker A, Hoeck H, Perez L (1978) Microwear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201:908–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Spinage CA (1973) A review of the age determination of mammals by means of teeth, with especial reference to Africa. Afr Wildl J 11:165–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lowe VPW (1967) Teeth as indicator of age with special reference to red deer (Cervus elaphus) of known age from Rhum. J Zool 152:137–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Linhart SB, Knowlton FF (1967) Determining age of coyotes by tooth cementum layers. J Wildl Manag 31:362–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Aitken RJ (1975) Cementum layers and tooth wear as criteria for ageing roe deer. J Zool (London) 175:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fiorillo AR (1998) Dental micro wear patterns of the sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus: evidence for resource partitioning in the late Jurassic of North America. Hist Biol 13:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hoyme LE, Koritzer RT (1971) Significance of canine wear in pongid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 35:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Throckmorton GS (1979) The effect of wear on the cheek teeth and associated dental tissues of the lizard Uromastix aegyptius. J Morphol 160:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Payne S (1985) Morphological distinctions between the mandibular teeth of young sheep, ovis and goats. J Archaeol Sci 12:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Payne S (1987) Reference codes for wear states in the mandibular cheek teeth of sheep and goats. J Archaeol Sci 14:609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Brown BWA (1991) The dentition of red deer: a scoring scheme to assess age from wear of the permanent molariform teeth. J Zool (London) 22:519–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Every RG, Kuhne WG (1971) Bimodal wear of mammalian teeth. Zool J Linn Soc 50:23–27Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Severinghaus CW (1949) Tooth development and wear as criteria of age in white-tailed deer. J Wildl Manag 13:195–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Walker PL (1976) Wear striations on the incisor of ceropithecid monkeys as an index of diet and habitat preference. Am J Phys Anthropol 45:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Skogland T (1988) Tooth wear by food limitation and its life history consequences in wild reindeer. Oilos 51:238–242Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Loe LE, Mysterud A, Langvatn R, Stenseth N (2003) Decelerating and sex-dependent tooth wear in Norwegian red deer. Oecologia 135:346–353Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pigno MA, Hatch JP, Rodrigues-Garcia RCM, Sakai S, Rugh JD (2001) Severity, distribution, and correlates of occlusal tooth wear in a sample of Mexican-American and European-American adults. Int J Prosthodont 14:65–70Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Eisenburger M, Addy M (2002) Erosion and attrition of human enamel in vitro. Part I: interaction effects. J Dent 20:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zhou ZR, Zheng J (2011) On the anti-wear behaviour of human teeth. In: Proceedings of the international conference on biotribology, London, 18–21 Sep. 2011Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kim KY, Kho HS, Lee KH (2000) Age estimation by occlusal tooth wear. J Forensic Sci 45(2):303–309Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhong-Rong Zhou
    • 1
  • Hai-Yang Yu
    • 2
  • Jing Zheng
    • 1
  • Lin-Mao Qian
    • 1
  • Yu Yan
    • 3
  1. 1.Tribology Research InstituteSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.West China College of StomatologySichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Advanced Materials and TechnologyUniversity of Science and TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations