Spastic Facial Muscle Disorders



Facial muscles are a group of striated muscles that, among other things, control facial expression and are innervated by the facial nerve (CNVII). In contrast, the nearby eyelid retractor muscle and masticator muscles are innervated by the oculomotor (CNIII) and mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (CNV), respectively.


Facial Nerve Cervical Dystonia Hemifacial Spasm Eyelid Opening BoNT Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams WH, Digre KB, Patel BC, Anderson RL, Warner JE, Katz BJ (2006) The evaluation of light sensitivity in benign essential blepharospasm. Am J Ophthalmol 142(1):82–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler CH, Zimmerman RA, Savino PJ, Bernardi B, Bosley TM, Sergott RC (1992) Hemifacial spasm: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance tomographic angiography. Ann Neurol 32(4):502–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth JR, Kraft SP (1995) Long-term changes in duration of relief with botulinum toxin treatment of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmology 102(12):2036–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alappan N, Shyam Sundar A, Varghese ST (Spring 2008) Neuroleptic induced laryngo-pharyngeal dystonia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 20(2):241–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albanese A (2011) Terminology for preparations of botulinum neurotoxins: what a difference a name makes. JAMA 305(1):89–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alderson K, Holds JB, Anderson RL (1991) Botulinum-induced alteration of nerve-muscle interactions in the human orbicularis oculi following treatment for blepharospasm. Neurology 41(11):1800–1805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alster TS, Lupton JR (2003) Botulinum toxin type B for dynamic glabellar rhytides refractory to botulinum toxin type A. Dermatol Surg 29(5):516–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson RL, Patel BC, Holds JB, Jordan DR (1998) Blepharospasm: past, present, and future. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 14(5):305–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aramideh M (1996) Ongerboer de Visser BW, Holstege G, Majoie CB Speelman JD. Blepharospasm in association with a lower pontine lesion. Neurology 46(2):476–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aramideh M, Ongerboer de Visser BW, Brans JW, Koelman JH, Speelman JD (1995) Pretarsal application of botulinum toxin for treatment of blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 59(3):309–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Armstrong MW, Mountain RE, Murray JA (1996) Treatment of facial synkinesis and facial asymmetry with botulinum toxin type A following facial nerve palsy. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 21(1):15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker RS, Sun WS, Hasan SA et al (1997) Maladaptive neural compensatory mechanisms in Bell’s palsy-induced blepharospasm. Neurology 49(1):223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Banik R, Miller NR (2004) Chronic myokymia limited to the eyelid is a benign condition. J Neuroophthalmol 24(4):290–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baumann L, Black L (2003) Botulinum toxin type B (Myobloc). Dermatol Surg 29(5):496–500; discussion 500Google Scholar
  15. Bodker FS, Olson JJ, Putterman AM (1993) Acquired blepharoptosis secondary to essential blepharospasm. Ophthalmic Surg 24(8):546–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borodic GE, Ferrante R (1992) Effects of repeated botulinum toxin injections on orbicularis oculi muscle. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 12(2):121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Borodic G, Johnson E, Goodnough M, Schantz E (1996) Botulinum toxin therapy, immunologic resistance, and problems with available materials. Neurology 46(1):26–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boroojerdi B, Ferbert A, Schwarz M, Herath H, Noth J (1998) Botulinum toxin treatment of synkinesia and hyperlacrimation after facial palsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65(1):111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley EA, Hodge DO, Bartley GB (2003) Benign essential blepharospasm among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976 to 1995: an epidemiologic study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 19(3):177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brin MF, Blitzer A (1993) Botulinum toxin: dangerous terminology errors. J R Soc Med 86(8):493–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brin MF, Blitzer A, Stewart C (1998) Laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia): observations of 901 patients and treatment with botulinum toxin. Adv Neurol 78:237–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Castelbuono A, Miller NR (1998) Spontaneous remission in patients with essential blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 126(3):432–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cather JC, Menter A (2002) Update on botulinum toxin for facial aesthetics. Dermatol Clin 20(4):749–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cavenar JO Jr, Brantley IJ, Braasch E (1978) Blepharospasm: organic or functional? Psychosomatics 19(10):623–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen RS, Lu CS, Tsai CH (1996) Botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of hemifacial spasm. Acta Neurol Scand 94(3):207–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi WH, Song CW, Kim YB et al (2007) Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by intramuscular repeated dose of botulinum toxin type A in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 30(3):217–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Christiansen SP, Becker BA, Iaizzo PA, McLoon LK (2003) Extraocular muscle force generation after ricin-mAb35 injection: implications for strabismus treatment. J AAPOS 7(1):1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Daniele Ranoux CG (2007) Practical handbook on botulinum toxin. Solal Editeurs, MarseilleGoogle Scholar
  29. Defazio G, Livrea P (2002) Epidemiology of primary blepharospasm. Mov Disord 17(1):7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Defazio G, Livrea P, Guanti G, Lepore V, Ferrari E (1993) Genetic contribution to idiopathic adult-onset blepharospasm and cranial-cervical dystonia. Eur Neurol 33(5):345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Defazio G, Livrea P, De Salvia R et al (2001) Prevalence of primary blepharospasm in a community of Puglia region, Southern Italy. Neurology 56(11):1579–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Defazio G, Abbruzzese G, Girlanda P et al (2002) Botulinum toxin A treatment for primary hemifacial spasm: a 10-year multicenter study. Arch Neurol 59(3):418–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Defazio G, Brancati F, Valente EM et al (2003) Familial blepharospasm is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and relates to a novel unassigned gene. Mov Disord 18(2):207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Defazio G, Martino D, Aniello MS et al (2006) A family study on primary blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77(2):252–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Diamond EL, Trobe JD, Belar CD (1984) Psychological aspects of essential blepharospasm. J Nerv Ment Dis 172(12):749–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dressler D (2000) Complete secondary botulinum toxin therapy failure in blepharospasm. J Neurol 247(10):809–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dressler D (2002) Clinical features of antibody-induced complete secondary failure of botulinum toxin therapy. Eur Neurol 48(1):26–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dressler D (2009) Routine use of Xeomin in patients previously treated with Botox: long term results. Eur J Neurol 16(Suppl 2):2–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dressler D (2010) Botulinum toxin for treatment of dystonia. Eur J Neurol 17(Suppl 1):88–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dressler D, Benecke R (2007) Pharmacology of therapeutic botulinum toxin preparations. Disabil Rehabil 29(23):1761–1768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dressler D, Mander GJ (2008) Flink, K Equivalent potency of Xeomin® and Botox®. Mov Disord 23(suppl 1):S20–S21Google Scholar
  42. Dutton JJ, Buckley EG (1988) Long-term results and complications of botulinum A toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm. Ophthalmology 95(11):1529–1534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dutton JJ, Fowler AM (2007) Botulinum toxin in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 52(1):13–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Elston JS (1986) Botulinum toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49(7):827–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Elston JS (1987) Long-term results of treatment of idiopathic blepharospasm with botulinum toxin injections. Br J Ophthalmol 71(9):664–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Elston JS (1992) The management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. J Neurol 239(1):5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Engstrom PF, Arnoult JB, Mazow ML et al (1987) Effectiveness of botulinum toxin therapy for essential blepharospasm. Ophthalmology 94(8):971–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Evidente VG, Adler CH (1998) Hemifacial spasm and other craniofacial movement disorders. Mayo Clin Proc 73(1):67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fante RG, Frueh BR (2001) Differential section of the seventh nerve as a tertiary procedure for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 17(4):276–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fine PG, Digre KB (1995) A controlled trial of regional sympatholysis in the treatment of photo-oculodynia syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol 15(2):90–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Forget R, Tozlovanu V, Iancu A, Boghen D (2002) Botulinum toxin improves lid opening delays in blepharospasm-associated apraxia of lid opening. Neurology 58(12):1843–1846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Frevert J (2009) Xeomin is free from complexing proteins. Toxicon 54(5):697–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Frueh BR, Felt DP, Wojno TH, Musch DC (1984) Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin. A preliminary report. Arch Ophthalmol 102(10):1464–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Frueh BR, Nelson CC, Kapustiak JF, Musch DC (1988) The effect of omitting botulinum toxin from the lower eyelid in blepharospasm treatment. Am J Ophthalmol 106(1):45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Frueh BR, Musch DC, Bersani TA (1992) Effects of eyelid protractor excision for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. Am J Ophthalmol 113(6):681–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Garland PE, Patrinely JR, Anderson RL (1987) Hemifacial spasm. Results of unilateral myectomy. Ophthalmology 94(3):288–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gillum WN, Anderson RL (1981) Blepharospasm surgery. An anatomical approach. Arch Ophthalmol 99(6):1056–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Golbe LI, Davis PH, Lepore FE (1989) Eyelid movement abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy. Mov Disord 4(4):297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gordon NS (2005) Focal dystonia, with special reference to writer’s cramp. Int J Clin Pract 59(9):1088–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Grandas F, Elston J, Quinn N, Marsden CD (1988) Blepharospasm: a review of 264 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51(6):767–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Grandas F, Quinn N, Elston J, Marsden CD (1990) The cause of blepharospasm is unknown in most cases. Mov Disord 5(1):89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Greene P, Fahn S, Diamond B (1994) Development of resistance to botulinum toxin type A in patients with torticollis. Mov Disord 9(2):213–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hallett M (2002) Blepharospasm: recent advances. Neurology 59(9):1306–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hambleton P (1992) Clostridium botulinum toxins: a general review of involvement in disease, structure, mode of action and preparation for clinical use. J Neurol 239(1):16–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Harrison AR (2003) Chemodenervation for facial dystonias and wrinkles. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 14(5):241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Harrison AR, Berbos Z, Zaldivar RA, Anderson BC, Semmer M, Lee MS, McLoon LK (2011) Modulating neuromuscular junction density changes in botulinum toxin treated orbicularis oculi. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:982–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hasan SA, Baker RS, Sun WS et al (1997) The role of blink adaptation in the pathophysiology of benign essential blepharospasm. Arch Ophthalmol 115(5):631–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hasegawa K, Watanabe T, Suzuki T et al (2007) A novel subunit structure of Clostridium botulinum serotype D toxin complex with three extended arms. J Biol Chem 282(34):24777–24783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Herrero MT, Barcia C, Navarro JM (2002) Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia. Childs Nerv Syst 18(8):386–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Herz NL, Yen MT (2005) Modulation of sensory photophobia in essential blepharospasm with chromatic lenses. Ophthalmology 112(12):2208–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hexsel D, Dal’forno T (2003) Type A botulinum toxin in the upper aspect of the face. Clin Dermatol 21(6):488–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ho SL, Cheng PW, Wong WC et al (1999) A case-controlled MRI/MRA study of neurovascular contact in hemifacial spasm. Neurology 53(9):2132–2139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Holds JB, Alderson K, Fogg SG, Anderson RL (1990) Motor nerve sprouting in human orbicularis muscle after botulinum A injection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 31(5):964–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Horn AK, Porter JD, Evinger C (1993) Botulinum toxin paralysis of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Types and time course of alterations in muscle structure, physiology and lid kinematics. Exp Brain Res 96(1):39–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hotson JR, Boman DR (1991) Memory-contingent saccades and the substantia nigra postulate for essential blepharospasm. Brain 114(Pt 1A):295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hott JS, Dalakas MC, Sung C, Hallett M, Youle RJ (1998) Skeletal muscle-specific immunotoxin for the treatment of focal muscle spasm. Neurology 50(2):485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Huang W, Foster JA, Rogachefsky AS (2000) Pharmacology of botulinum toxin. J Am Acad Dermatol 43(2 Pt 1):249–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ishikawa M, Ohira T, Namiki J et al (1997) Electrophysiological investigation of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression: F waves of the facial muscles, blink reflexes, and abnormal muscle responses. J Neurosurg 86(4):654–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jacobs L, Kaba S, Pullicino P (1994) The lesion causing continuous facial myokymia in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 51(11):1115–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jankovic JJ (1985) Clinical features, differential diagnosis, and pathogenesis of blepharospasm and cranial-cervical dystonia. In: Bosniak S (ed) Advances in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, vol 4. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 67–82Google Scholar
  81. Jankovic J (1992) Diagnosis and classification of tics and Tourette syndrome. Adv Neurol 58:7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jankovic J (2001) Tourette’s syndrome. N Engl J Med 345(16):1184–1192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jankovic J (2009) Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Xeomin in the treatment of blepharospasm. Eur J Neurol 16(Suppl 2):14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jankovic J, Orman J (1987) Botulinum A toxin for cranial-cervical dystonia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 37(4):616–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jankovic J, Patten BM (1987) Blepharospasm and autoimmune diseases. Mov Disord 2(3):159–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jankovic J, Schwartz KS (1993) Longitudinal experience with botulinum toxin injections for treatment of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. Neurology 43(4):834–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jankovic J, Stone L (1991) Dystonic tics in patients with Tourette’s syndrome. Mov Disord 6(3):248–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jankovic J, Havins WE, Wilkins RB (1982) Blinking and blepharospasm. Mechanism, diagnosis, and management. JAMA 248(23):3160–3164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jankovic J, Vuong KD, Ahsan J (2003) Comparison of efficacy and immunogenicity of original versus current botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia. Neurology 60(7):1186–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jannetta PJ (1983) Hemifacial spasm: treatment by posterior fossa surgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 46(5):465–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jannetta PJ, Abbasy M, Maroon JC, Ramos FM, Albin MS (1977) Etiology and definitive microsurgical treatment of hemifacial spasm. Operative techniques and results in 47 patients. J Neurosurg 47(3):321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jedynak CP, Palfi S, Vidailhet M, Kullmann B (1993) Hemifacial spasm treated with botulinum toxin. Rev Neurol 149(3):202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jordan DR, Anderson RL, Digre KB (1990) Apraxia of lid opening in blepharospasm. Ophthalmic Surg 21(5):331–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Jost WH, Blumel J, Grafe S (2007) Botulinum neurotoxin type A free of complexing proteins (XEOMIN) in focal dystonia. Drugs 67(5):669–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kahn L, Jordaan H (2001) The swallowing and voicing characteristics of pharyngeal dystonia: a single case report. S Afr J Commun Disord 48:21–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kalkanis SN, Eskandar EN, Carter BS, Barker FG, II (2003) Microvascular decompression surgery in the United States, 1996 to 2000: mortality rates, morbidity rates, and the effects of hospital and surgeon volumes. Neurosurgery 52(6):1251–1261; discussion 1261–1262Google Scholar
  97. Kalra HK, Magoon EH (1990) Side effects of the use of botulinum toxin for treatment of benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmic Surg 21(5):335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kemp LW, Reich SG (2004) Hemifacial Spasm. Curr Treat Options Neurol 6(3):175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kennedy RH, Bartley GB, Flanagan JC, Waller RR (1989) Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin. Mayo Clin Proc 64(9):1085–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Krack P, Marion MH (1994) “Apraxia of lid opening,” a focal eyelid dystonia: clinical study of 32 patients. Mov Disord 9(6):610–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kraft SP, Lang AE (1988) Botulinum toxin injections in the treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and eyelid fasciculations. Can J Neurol Sci 15(3):276–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kulisevsky J, Marti MJ, Ferrer I, Tolosa E (1988) Meige syndrome: neuropathology of a case. Mov Disord 3(2):170–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lepore V, Defazio G, Acquistapace D et al (1995) Botulinum A toxin for the so-called apraxia of lid opening. Mov Disord 10(4):525–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Levin H, Reddy R (2000) Clozapine in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced blepharospasm: a report of 4 cases. J Clin Psychiatry 61(2):140–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Linder JS, Edmonson BC, Laquis SJ, Drewry RD Jr, Fleming JC (2002) Skin cooling before periocular botulinum toxin A injection. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 18(6):441–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Marti-Fabregas J, Montero J, Lopez-Villegas D, Quer M (1997) Post-irradiation neuromyotonia in bilateral facial and trigeminal nerve distribution. Neurology 48(4):1107–1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mauriello JA Jr, Dhillon S, Leone T, Pakeman B, Mostafavi R, Yepez MC (1996) Treatment selections of 239 patients with blepharospasm and Meige syndrome over 11 years. Br J Ophthalmol 80(12):1073–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mauriello JA Jr, Carbonaro P, Dhillon S, Leone T, Franklin M (1998) Drug-associated facial dyskinesias–a study of 238 patients. J Neuroophthalmol 18(2):153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mauriello JA Jr, Keswani R, Franklin M (1999) Long-term enhancement of botulinum toxin injections by upper-eyelid surgery in 14 patients with facial dyskinesias. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125(6):627–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. McCann JD, Gauthier M, Morschbacher R et al (1999) A novel mechanism for benign essential blepharospasm. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 15(6):384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. McCord CD Jr (1984) Coles WH, Shore JW, Spector R, Putnam JR. Treatment of essential blepharospasm. I. Comparison of facial nerve avulsion and eyebrow-eyelid muscle stripping procedure. Arch Ophthalmol 102(2):266–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. McLoon LK, Wirtschafter JD (2001) Doxil-induced chemomyectomy: effectiveness for permanent removal of orbicularis oculi muscle in monkey eyelid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42(6):1254–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Nerad JA, Carter KD, Alford MA (2008) Oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery. Mosby Elsevier, PhliladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  114. Nishikiori N, Ohba M, Osanai H (2005) Correlation of low-T3 syndrome with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Jpn J Ophthalmol 49(4):328–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Odergren T, Hjaltason H, Kaakkola S et al (1998) A double blind, randomised, parallel group study to investigate the dose equivalence of Dysport and Botox in the treatment of cervical dystonia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64(1):6–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Osako M, Keltner JL (1991) Botulinum A toxin (Oculinum) in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 36(1):28–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pane A, Burdon M, Miller NR (2007) The neuro-ophthalmolgy survival guide. Mosby Elsevier, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  118. Park YC, Lim JK, Lee DK, Yi SD (1993) Botulinum a toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm. J Korean Med Sci 8(5):334–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Park J, Lee MS, Harrison AR (2011) Profile of Xeomin(R) (incobotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of blepharospasm. Clin Ophthalmol 5:725–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Patel BC, Anderson RL (1995) Blepharospasm and related facial movement disorders. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 6(5):86–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Perman KI, Baylis HI, Rosenbaum AL, Kirschen DG (1986) The use of botulinum toxin in the medical management of benign essential blepharospasm. Ophthalmology 93(1):1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Price J, O’Day J (1994) Efficacy and side effects of botulinum toxin treatment for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 22(4):255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Price J, Farish S, Taylor H, O’Day J (1997) Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Randomized trial to determine the most appropriate location for botulinum toxin injections. Ophthalmology 104(5):865–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Putterman AM (1990) Botulinum toxin injections in the treatment of seventh nerve misdirection. Am J Ophthalmol 110(2):205–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rahman EA, Trobe JD, Gebarski SS (2002) Hemifacial spasm caused by vertebral artery dolichoectasia. Am J Ophthalmol 133(6):854–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ranoux D, Gury C, Fondarai J, Mas JL, Zuber M (2002) Respective potencies of Botox and Dysport: a double blind, randomised, crossover study in cervical dystonia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72(4):459–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schantz EJ, Johnson EA (1990) Dose standardisation of botulinum toxin. Lancet 335(8686):421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schicatano EJ, Basso MA, Evinger C (1997) Animal model explains the origins of the cranial dystonia benign essential blepharospasm. J Neurophysiol 77(5):2842–2846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Scott AB, Kennedy RA, Stubbs HA (1985) Botulinum A toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm. Arch Ophthalmol 103(3):347–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Shorr N, Seiff SR, Kopelman J (1985) The use of botulinum toxin in blepharospasm. Am J Ophthalmol 99(5):542–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Siatkowski RM, Tyutyunikov A, Biglan AW et al (1993) Serum antibody production to botulinum A toxin. Ophthalmology 100(12):1861–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Soulayrol S, Caperan A, Penot-Ragon C, Beaulieu JP, Gastaut JL (1993) Treatments by local injections of botulinum toxin in neurology. Indications and results. Presse Med 22(20):957–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Soylev MF, Kocak N, Kuvaki B, Ozkan SB, Kir E (2002) Anesthesia with EMLA cream for botulinum A toxin injection into eyelids. Ophthalmologica 216(5):355–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tarsy D (2000) Tardive Dyskinesia. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2(3):205–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Tolosa E, Compta Y (2006) Dystonia in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 253(Suppl 7):VII7–VII13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tozlovanu V, Forget R, Iancu A, Boghen D (2001) Prolonged orbicularis oculi activity: a major factor in apraxia of lid opening. Neurology 57(6):1013–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Vissenberg I, Dieleman-Smet H, Tassignon MJ (1993) Botulinum A toxin therapy in ophthalmology: a report of patients with facial dystonias. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 248:77–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wenzel T, Schnider P, Griengl H, Birner P, Nepp J, Auff E (2000) Psychiatric disorders in patients with blepharospasm—a reactive pattern? J Psychosom Res 48(6):589–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wirtschafter JD (1991) Clinical doxorubicin chemomyectomy. An experimental treatment for benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmology 98(3):357–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wirtschafter JD (1994) Chemomyectomy of the orbicularis oculi muscles for the treatment of localized hemifacial spasm. J Neuroophthalmol 14(4):199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wirtschafter JD, McLoon LK (1998) Long-term efficacy of local doxorubicin chemomyectomy in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmology 105(2):342–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wutthiphan S, Kowal L, O’Day J, Jones S, Price J (1997) Diplopia following subcutaneous injections of botulinum A toxin for facial spasms. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 34(4):229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Zwirner P, Dressler D, Kruse E (1997) Spasmodic laryngeal dyspnea: a rare manifestation of laryngeal dystonia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254(5):242–245PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juwan Park
    • 1
  • Andrew R. Harrison
    • 2
  • Michael S. Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations