The retina is a complex tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. It receives images from the outside world and transmits signals to the visual cortex in the occipital pole of the brain.
The retina is basically neuroglial tissue, composed of ganglion cells (neurons) and glia (astrocytes within the nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer and Müller radial glia which extend from the inner limiting membrane to the outer limiting membrane). Axons from the retinal ganglion cells form the nerve fiber layer which courses posteriorly to become the optic nerve.
This chapter will review the histology of the normal retina and introduce the pathology of some common retinal disorders, the best known of which is retinoblastoma.