The topic of burnout is becoming increasingly prominent in the literature. PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) listed more than 7,200 articles on the subject of burnout in November 2011. Burnout has often been analyzed in the context of work and specific occupation groups, as well as in connection with partners, parental burnout, and situations in which dementia patients, for example, require care. Burnout can be described as a condition based on the protracted depletion of an individual’s energies, characterized by emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment, and feelings of insufficiency and depersonalization. Until now, no unified international definition of burnout has existed. What can be done? There are options for individuals and options for employers, organizations, and the environment. However, the burnout syndrome of an individual should always be surveyed and analyzed within the broad comprehensive context of the person concerned, making use of interdisciplinary professional support.


Emotional Intelligence Emotional Exhaustion Personal Accomplishment European Agency Burnout Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Isometsä, E., Kalimo, R., Nykyri, E., Koskinen, S., Aromaa, A., & Lönnqvist, J. (2006). Burnout in the general population. Results from the Finnish Health 2000 Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(1), 11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Virtanen, M., Aromaa, A., & Lönnqvist, J. (2008). Burnout in relation to age in the adult working population. Journal of Occupational Health, 50(4), 362–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahola, K., Toppinen-Tanner, S., Huutanen, P., Koskinen, A., & Väänänen, A. (2009). Occupational burnout and chronic work disability: An eight-year cohort study on pensioning among Finnish forest industry workers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115, 150–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avgar, A. C., Givan, R. K., & Liu, M. (2011). A balancing act: Work–life balance and multiple stakeholder outcomes in hospitals. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, 717–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Awa, W. L., Plaumann, M., & Walter, U. (2010). Burnout prevention: A review of intervention programs. Patient Education and Counseling, 78(2), 184–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badura, B., Schellschmidt, H., & Vetter, C. H. (Eds.). (2004). Fehlzeiten-Report 2003: Schwerpunktthema: Work-Life-Balance - Zahlen, Daten, Analysen aus allen Branchen der Wirtschaft. Berlin: WIdO und der Universität Bielefeld.Google Scholar
  7. Bagaajav, A., Myagmarjav, S., Nanjid, K., Otgon, S., & Chae, Y. M. (2011). Burnout and job stress among Mongolian doctors and nurses. Industrial Health, 49(5), 582–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bährer-Kohler, S. (Ed.). (2011a). Social determinants and mental health. Accessed 8 Nov 2011.
  9. Bährer-Kohler, S. (2011b). BUSCH. Handout zum lösungsorientierten Burnoutprogramm. http: Accessed 3 Nov 2011.Google Scholar
  10. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2002). Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General survey: An internet study. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 15(3), 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 170–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-regulation, research, theory and applications. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Bergerman, L., Corabian, P., & Harstall, C. H. (2009). IHE Report. Effectiveness of organizational interventions for the prevention of workplace stress. The Institute of Health Economics (IHE) Accessed 2 Nov 2011.
  15. Bond, F. W., & Bunce, D. (2001). Job control mediates change in a work reorganization: Intervention for stress reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(4), 290–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burisch, M. (2006). Das Burnout-Syndrom –Theorie der inneren Erschöpfung. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Cameron, L. D., & Leventhal, H. (Eds.). (2003). The self-regulation of health and illness behaviour. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  19. Cerimele, J. M. (2011). Does post-call syndrome exist, and is it related to physician burnout? Academic Psychiatry, 35, 272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, C., Dewe, P., & O’Driscoll, M. (2001). Organizational stress: A review and critique of theory, research and applications. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Cox, T., Griffith A. J., & Rial-Gonzalez, E. (2000). Research on work-related stress. Report to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  22. Danhof-Pont, M. B., Van Veen, T., & Zitman, F. G. (2011). Biomarkers in burnout: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 70(6), 505–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Oliveira, G. S., Ahmad, S., Jr., Stock, M. C., Harter, R. L., Almeida, M. D., Fitzgerald, P. C., & McCarthy, R. J. (2011). High incidence of burnout in academic chairpersons of anesthesiology: Should we be taking better care of our leaders? Anesthesiology, 114(1), 181–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2008). The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory: A good alternative to measure burnout and engagement. In J. Halbesleben (Ed.), Handbook of stress and burnout in health care (pp. 65–78). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  25. Doménech Betoret, F., & Gómez Artiga, A. (2010). Barriers perceived by teachers at work, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 637–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ekberg, J. Y., Griffith, N., & Foxall, M. J. (1986). Spouse burnout syndrome. Journal of Advanced. Nursing, 11(2), 161–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ekstedt, M., Söderström, M., Akerstedt, T., Nilsson, J., Søndergaard, H. P., & Aleksander, P. (2006). Disturbed sleep and fatigue in occupational burnout. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32(2), 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ekstedt, M., Söderström, M., & Akerstedt, T. (2009). Sleep physiology in recovery from burnout. Biological Psychology, 82(3), 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Embriaco, N., Azoulay, E., Barrau, K., Kentish, N., Pochard, F., Loundou, A., & Papazia, L. (2007). High level of Burnout in Intensivists – Prevalence and associated factors. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175, 686–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emold, C., Schneider, N., Meller, I., & Yagil, Y. (2011). Communication skills, working environment and burnout among oncology nurses. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 15(4), 358–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2009). OSH in figures: Stress at work—facts and figures. Accessed 3 Nov 2011.
  32. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2011). Stress. Accessed 9 Nov 2011.
  33. Fischer, R., & Boer, D. (2011). What is more important for national well-being: Money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of well-being, burnout, and anxiety across 63 societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 164–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Forgas, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (Eds.). (2009). Psychology of self-regulation: Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes (Sydney symposium in social psychology). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  35. Freudenberger, H., & North, G. (1992). Burnout bei Frauen. Über das Gefühl des Ausgebranntseins. Frankfurt: Krüger.Google Scholar
  36. Friberg, T. (2009). Burnout: From popular culture to psychiatric diagnosis in Sweden. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 33(4), 538–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Prussia, G. E. (2008). Employee coping with organizational change: An examination of alternative theoretical perspectives and models. Personnel Psychology, 61, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gencay, S., & Gencay, O. A. (2011). Burnout among Judo coaches in Turkey. Journal of Occupational Health, 53(5), 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gil-Monte, P. R., & Olivares Faúndez, V. E. (2011). Psychometric properties of the “Spanish Burnout Inventory” in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 441–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Golembiewski, R. T., Munzenrider, R. F., & Stevenson, J. G. (1986). Phases of burnout: Developments in concepts and applications. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  41. Grassi, L., & Magnani, K. (2000). Psychiatric morbidity and burnout in the medical profession: An Italian study of general practitioners and hospital physicians. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 329–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray, D. E. (2006). Executive coaching: Towards a dynamic alliance of psychotherapy and transformative learning processes. Management Learning, 37(4), 475–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gray-Stanley, J. A., & Muramatsu, N. (2011). Work stress, burnout, and social and personal resources among direct care workers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 1065–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gusy, B. (1995). Stressoren in der Arbeit, Soziale Unterstützung und Burnout—Eine Kausalanalyse. Band 1. Munich, Vienna: Profil Verlag GmbH.Google Scholar
  45. Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Jokisaari, M. (2011). A 35-year follow-up study on burnout among Finnish employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 345–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Henry, J. P. (1992). Biological basis of the stress response. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 27(1), 66–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Houkes, I., Winants, Y., Twellaar, M., & Verdonk, P. (2011). Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GPs. A three wave panel study. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hsu, H.-Y., Chen, S.-H., Yu, H.-Y., & Lou, J.-H. (2010). Job stress, achievement motivation and occupational burnout among male nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(7), 1592–1601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hüther, G. (1997). Biologie der Angst. Wie aus Stress Gefühle werden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  50. Innstrand, S. T., Langballe, E. M., Falkum, E., & Aasland, O. G. (2011). Exploring within- and between-gender differences in burnout: 8 different occupational groups. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 84(7), 813–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. INRS—L’Institut national de recherche et de sécurité pour la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles. (2000). Le stress au travail. Accessed 2 Nov 2011.
  52. Issaksson Ro, K. E., Tyssen, R., Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Aasland, O. G., & Gude, T. (2010). A three-year cohort study of the relationships between coping, job stress and burnout after a counselling intervention for help-seeking physicians. BMC Public Health, 10, 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jonsdottir, I. H., Rödjer, L., Hadzibajramovic, E., Börjesson, M., & Ahlborg, G., Jr. (2010). A prospective study of leisure-time physical activity and mental health in Swedish health care workers and social insurance officers. Preventive Medicine, 51(5), 373–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kanfer, F. H., Reinecker, H., & Schmelzer, D. (2000). Selbstmanagement-Therapie: Ein Lehrbuch für die klinische Praxis. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  56. Kaschka, W. P., Korczak, D., & Broich, K. (2011). Burnout: A fashionable diagnosis. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 108(46), 781–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kessler, R. C., Heeringa, S., Lakoma, M. D., Petukhova, M., Rupp, A. E., Schoenbaum, M., Wang, P. S., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2008). Individual and societal effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National comorbidity survey replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 703–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim, H., & Lee, S. Y. (2009). Supervisory communication, burnout, and turnover intention among social workers in health care settings. Social Work in Health Care, 48(4), 364–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kim, H., Chang, M., Rose, K., & Kim, S. (2011a). Predictors of caregiver burden in caregivers of individuals with dementia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(4), 846–855, April 2012.Google Scholar
  60. Kim, H., Ji, J., & Kao, D. (2011b). Burnout and physical health among social workers: A three-year longitudinal study. Social Work, 56(3), 258–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Korczak, D., Huber, B., & Kister, C. (2010). Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome. GMS Health Technology Assessment, 6, Dec 09.Google Scholar
  62. Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., & Quill, T. E. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. Clinician’s corner. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1284–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kravits, K., McAllister-Black, R., Grant, M., & Kirk, C. (2010). Self-care strategies for nurses: A psycho-educational intervention for stress reduction and the prevention of burnout. Applied Nursing Research, 23(3), 130–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kristensen, T., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work and Stress, 19(3), 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kudielka, B. M., Bellingrath, S., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2006). Cortisol in burnout and vital exhaustion: An overview. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia, 28(1 Suppl 1), 34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ladegard, G. (2011). Stress management through workplace coaching: The impact of learning experiences. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 9(1), 29–43.Google Scholar
  67. Lauderdale, M. L. (1982). Burnout: Strategies for personal and organizational life: Speculations on evolving paradigms. San Diego: Learning Concepts, Subsidiary of University Associates.Google Scholar
  68. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  69. Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (1988). The impact of interpersonal environment of burnout and organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Leiter, M. P., Frank, E., & Matheson, T. J. (2009). Demands, values, and burnout: Relevance for physicians. Canadian Family Physician, 55(12), 1224–1225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Leka, S., & Cox, T. (2008). Best practice in work-related stress management interventions. Accessed 9 Dec 2011.
  73. Leka, S., Griffiths, A., & Cox, T. (2004). Work organization and stress: systematic problem approaches for employers, managers and trade union representatives. World Health Organization. Accessed 6 Dec 2011.
  74. Lilly, M. B., Robinson, C. A., Holtzman, S., & Bottorff, J. L. (2011). Can we move beyond burden and burnout to support the health and wellness of family caregivers to persons with dementia? Evidence from British Columbia, Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community, 20(1), 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lindström, C., Aman, J., & Norberg, A. L. (2010). Increased prevalence of burnout symptoms in parents of chronically ill children. Acta Paediatrica, 99(3), 427–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lindström, C., Aman, J., & Norberg, A. L. (2011). Parental burnout in relation to sociodemographic, psychosocial and personality factors as well as disease duration and glycaemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Acta Paediatrica, 100(7), 1011–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2, 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). The Maslach burnout inventory (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  80. Mazurkiewicz, R., Korenstein, D., Fallar, R., & Ripp, J. (2011). The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: A cross-sectional study. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 25, 1–8.Google Scholar
  81. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Melamed, S., Shirom, A., Toker, S., & Shapira, I. (2006). Burnout and risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study of apparently healthy employed persons. Psychosomatic Medicine, 86(6), 863–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Melchior, M. E. W., Bours, G. J. J. W., Schmitz, P., & Wittich, Y. (1997). Burnout in psychiatric nursing: A meta-analysis of related variables. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 4(3), 193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Msaouel, P., Keramaris, N. C., Tasoulis, A., Kolokythas, D., Syrmos, N., Pararas, N., Thireos, E., & Lionis, C. (2010). Burnout and training satisfaction of medical residents in Greece: Will the European Work Time Directive make a difference? Human Resources of Health, 8, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Noor, N. M., & Zainuddin, M. (2011). Emotional labor and burnout among female teachers: Work–family conflict as mediator. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14(4), 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Norlund, S., Reuterwall, C., Höög, J., Lindahl, B., Janlert, U., & Birgander, L. S. (2010). Burnout, working conditions and gender – Results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study. BMC Public Health, 10, 326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oddie, S., & Ousley, L. (2007). Assessing burn-out and occupational stressors in a medium secure service. The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 9, 32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ohue, T., Moriyama, M., & Nakaya, T. (2011). Examination of a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for Japanese nurses. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 8, 76–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Paisley, K., & Powell, G. M. (2007). Staff burn-out prevention and stress management. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16(4), 829–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pedrini, L., Magni, L. R., Giovannini, C., Panetta, V., Zacchi, V., Rossi, G., & Placentino, A. (2009). Burnout in nonhospital psychiatric residential facilities. Psychiatric Services, 60(11), 1547–1551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peterson, U., Demerouti, E., Bergström, G., Samuelsson, M., Asberg, M., & Nygren, A. (2008). Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 84–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. (2004). Self-esteem within the work and organizational context: A review of the organization-based self-esteem literature. Journal of Management, 30, 591–622.Google Scholar
  94. Raabe, B., Frese, M., & Beehr, T. A. (2007). Action regulation theory and career self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(2), 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ripp, J., Fallar, R., Babyatsky, M., David, R., Reich, L., & Korenstein, D. (2010). Prevalence of resident burnout at the start of training. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 22(3), 172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roth, M., Morrone, K., Moody, K., Kim, M., Wang, D., Moadel, A., & Levy, A. (2011). Career burnout among pediatric oncologists. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 57(7), 1168–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sá, L., & Fleming, M. (2008). Bullying, burnout, and mental health amongst Portuguese nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29(4), 411–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Salyers, M. P., Hudson, C., Morse, G., Rollins, A. L., Monroe-DeVita, M., Wilson, C., & Freeland, L. (2011). BREATHE: A pilot study of a one-day retreat to reduce burnout among mental health professionals. Psychiatric Services, 62(2), 214–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sasaki, M., Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, K., Morikawa, Y., & Nakagawa, H. (2009). Relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzman, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis (Issues in occupational health). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  101. Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2008). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice (pp. 204–220). http: Accessed 11 Nov 2011 and Accessed 1 Nov 2011.
  102. Sehlen, S., Vordermark, D., Schäfer, C., Herschbach, P., Bayerl, A., Pigorsch, S., Rittweger, J., Dormin, C., Bölling, T., Wypior, H. J., Zehentmayr, F., Schulze, W., Geinitz, H., & DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group. (2009). Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: A multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group. Radiation Oncology, 6, 4–6.Google Scholar
  103. Selmanovic, S., Ramic, E., Pranjic, N., Brekalo-Lazarevic, S., Pasic, Z., & Alic, A. (2011). Stress at work and burnout syndrome in hospital doctors. Medicinski Arhiv, 65(4), 221–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Selye, H. (1936). Syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138, 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shimazu, A., Shimazu, M., & Odara, T. (2005). Divergent effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model: The roles of job control and social support. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(3), 192–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organisations. In C. Cooper & I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 25–48). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  107. Soares, J. J., Grossi, G., & Sundin, O. (2007). Burnout among women: Associations with demographic/socio-economic, work, life-style and health factors. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 10(2), 61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Taormina, R. J., & Law, C. M. (2000). Approaches to preventing burnout: The effects of personal stress management and organizational socialization. Journal of Nursing Management, 8(2), 89–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Taris, T. W., Le Blanc, P. M., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. J. G. (2005). Are there causal relationships between the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory? A review and two longitudinal tests. Work and Stress, 19, 238–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ten Brummelhuis, L. L., ter Hoeven, C. L., Bakker, A. B., & Peper, B. (2011). Breaking through the loss cycle of burnout: The role of motivation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), 268–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tops, M., Boksem, M. A., Wijers, A. A., van Duinen, H., Den Boer, J. A., Meijman, T. F., & Korf, J. (2007). The psychobiology of burnout: Are there two different syndromes? Neuropsychobiology, 55(3–4), 143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Valente, L. E., Truzzi, A., Souza, W. F., Alves, G. S., Alves, C. E., Sudo, F. K., Lanna, M. E., Moreira, D. M., Engelhardt, E., & Laks, J. (2011). Health self-perception by dementia family caregivers: Sociodemographic and clinical factors. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 69(5), 739–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Van der Klink, J. J., Blonk, R. W., Schene, A. H., & van Dijk, F. J. (2001). The benefits of interventions for work-related stress. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 270–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Van Dierendonck, D., Schaufeli, W. B., & Buunk, B. P. (1998). The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program: The role of in- equity and social support. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 392–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Van Emmerik, I. J. H., & Euwema, M. C. (2001). At risk of burnout: Gender and faculty differences within academia. In J. de Jonge, P. Vlerick, A. Büssing, & W. B. Schaufeli (Eds.), Organisational psychology and health care at the start of a new millennium (pp. 123–138). Munich: Rainer Hampp Verlag.Google Scholar
  116. Van Horn, J. E., Schaufeli, W. B., Greenglass, E. R., & Burke, R. J. (1997). A Canadian-Dutch comparison of teachers’ burnout. Psychological Reports, 81(2), 371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Von Känel, R. (2008a). Das Burnout-Syndrom: eine medizinsche Perspektive. Praxis, 97, 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Von Känel, R. (2008b). Stress bei der Arbeit und Burnout-Probleme: Ab wann macht Stress wen krank? Presse-Frühstück “Kontroverse Krankheitsbilder” Jahresversammlung SGIM. Lausanne.Google Scholar
  119. Weber, A., & Jaekel-Reinhard, A. (2000). Burnout syndrome: A disease of modern societies? Occupational Medicine, 50(7), 512–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Weng, H. C., Hung, C. M., Liu, Y. T., Cheng, Y. J., Yen, C. Y., Chang, C. C., & Huang, C. K. (2011). Associations between emotional intelligence and doctor burnout, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Medical Education, 45(8), 835–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. WHO (2004). Promoting mental health. Accessed 3 Nov 2011.
  122. Wright, K. B. (2011). A communication competence approach to healthcare worker conflict, job stress, job burnout, and job satisfaction. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 33(2), 7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wu, S. Y., Li, H. Y., Wang, X. R., Yang, S. J., & Qiu, H. (2011). A comparison of the effect of work stress on burnout and quality of life between female nurses and female doctors. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 66(4), 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zerfass, A. (2007). Unternehmenskommunikation und Kommunikationsmanagement. In M. Piwinger and A. Zerfass (Eds.). Handbuch Unternehmenskommunikation [Handbook of corporate communication] (pp. 21–70). Wiesbaden: Gabler.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dr. Bährer-Kohler & PartnersBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations