Principles of Cancer Staging
Staging is the process to group patients with more or less similar disease, prognosis, and possible response to a certain therapy. It allows us to compare different therapies within similar groups. Clinical staging consists of physical examination, radiological evaluation, laboratory testing, and recently the use of minimally invasive techniques.
PET/CT scanning has now obtained a firm place in this process and is considered to be cost-effective. A more recent development is the use of the minimally invasive techniques like endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endo-esophageal ultrasound (EUS). They contribute significantly to the staging process and improve the selection of patients for studies or local treatments like chemoradiotherapy. In addition, the indication for surgical techniques (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy) is also reviewed. The use of the seventh international staging system and the impact of the new techniques are discussed in this chapter.
KeywordsSmall Cell Lung Cancer Malignant Pleural Effusion Large Cell Carcinoma Endobronchial Ultrasound Pleural Lesion
- 3.Travis WD, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC, et al. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. In: World Health Organization, editor. World Health Organization classification of tumours: pathology and genetics. Lyon: IARC Press/WHO Blue Books; 2004.Google Scholar
- 6.IASLC Staging Handbook. In: Thoracic malignancies. 7th ed. 2009. Editor and Publisher Deb Whippen, Florida: Editorial Rx Press, ISBN 978-0-9799274-2-3.Google Scholar