Manufactured Textile Fibers

  • Bhupender S. Gupta


The first conversion of naturally occurring fibers into threads strong enough to be looped into snares, knit to form nets, or woven into fabrics is lost in prehistory. Unlike stone weapons, such threads, cords, and fabrics—being organic in nature—have in most part disappeared, although in some dry caves traces remain. There is ample evidence to indicate that spindles used to assist in the twisting of fibers together had been developed long before the dawn of recorded history. In that spinning process, fibers such as wool were drawn out of a loose mass, perhaps held in a distaff, and made parallel by human fingers. (A maidservant so spins in Giotto’s The Annunciation to Anne, ca. ad 1306, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy [1].) A rod (spindle), hooked to the lengthening thread, was rotated so that the fibers while so held were twisted together to form additional thread. The finished length then was wound by hand around the spindle, which, in becoming the core on which the finished product was accumulated, served the dual role of twisting and storing and, in so doing, established a principle still in use today. (Even now, a “spindle” is 14,400 yards of coarse linen thread.) Thus, the formation of any threadlike structure became known as spinning, and it followed that a spider spins a web, a silkworm spins a cocoon, and manufactured fibers are spun by extrusion, although no rotation is involved.


Cellulose Acetate Aramid Fiber Molten Polymer Staple Fiber Acrylic Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance he has received from associates both from within the College of Textiles and from outside, including several fiber-producing companies, in preparing this chapter.


  1. 1.
    Time-Life Books (1970) Seven centuries of art. Time-Life Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mark H, Whitby GS (1940) Collected papers of W. H. Carothers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turbak A (1985) Rayon. In: Klingsberg A, Baldwin T (eds) Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, vol 14, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 55Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta BS, Hong CJ (1995) Absorbent Characteristics of Nonwovens Containing Cellulosic Fibers. INJ 7(1):38Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davis S (1989) All you need to know about tencel. Text Horizons 9(2):62Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Albrecht W, Reintjes M, Wulfhorst B (1997) Lyocell (alternative regenerated cellulose fibers). Chem Fibers Int 47:298Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Markham JW (1952) Competition in the Rayon industry. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p 16Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robinson JS (1980) Fiber-forming polymers: recent advances. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barnes CE (1987) Nylon 4-development and commercialization. Lenz Ber 62:62–66Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Sullivan D (1984) Conventional Nylons Encounter Strong New Competitor in Nylon 46. Chem Eng News 62(21):33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jung D-W, Kotek R, Vasanthan N, Tonelli AE (2004) High modulus Nylon 66 fibers through Lewis acid–base complexation to control hydrogen bonding and enhance drawing behavior. American Chemical Society. Polym Mater Sci Eng Div Preprints 91:354–355Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davis GW, Everage AE, Talbot JR (1984) Polyester fibers: Variants. Fiber Producer 12(6):45Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smierciak RC, Wardlow E, Lawrence B (1997) US Patent 5,602,222Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smierciak RC, Wardlow E, Lawrence B (1997) US Patent 5,618,901Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hutchinson SR (2005) Thermoplastic polyacrylonitrile. M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ahmed M (1982) Polypropylene fibers-science and technology, textile science and technology, vol 5. Elsevier, New York, p 16Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lieberman RB, Barbe PC (1990) Propylene polymers. In: Kroschwitz JI (ed) Concise encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering. Wiley, New York, p 916Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hogan JP, Banks RL (1986) History of crystalline polypropylene. In: Seymour RB, Cheng T (eds) History of polyolefins. Reidel, Boston, p 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gupta BS, Smith DK (2002) Nonwovens in absorbent materials. In: Chatterjee PK, Gupta BS (eds) Absorbent technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 378Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Madsen JB (2001) New generation of spunmelt composites. Nonwovens World 69, Aug–Sept 2001Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sekar N (2000) Dyeable polypropylene fibres: On the research front - review of developments. Colourage 47(2):33Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kotek R, Afshari M, Gupta B, Kish MH, Jung D (2004) Polypropylene alloy filaments dyeable with disperse dyes. Color Technol 120:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zwijnenburg A, Pennings AJ (1976) Longitudinal growth of polymer crystals from flowing solutions III. Polyethylene crystals in Couette flow. Colloid Polym Sci 254:868Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith P, Lemstra PJ (1980) Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing. J Mater Sci 15:505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kavesh S, Prevorsek D (1983) US Patent 4,413,110, to Allied ChemicalGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kwolek DL (1971) US Patent 3,600,350, to E. I. duPont de Nemours and CompanyGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blades H (1973) US Patent 3,767,756, to E. I. duPont de Nemours and CompanyGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McIntyre E (1988) High Performance for Industrial fibers. Text Horizons 8(10):43Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chenevey EC, Conciatori AB (1970) US Patent 3,549,603, to Celanese CompanyGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coffin DR, Serad GA, Hicks HL, Montgomery RT (1982) Properties and Applications of Celanese PBI - Polybenzimidazole Fiber. Text Res J 52:466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gore RW (1973) US Patent 3,953,566, to W. L. Gore & Associates, 27 April 1973Google Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    Edmonds JT Jr, Hill HW Jr (1967) US Patent 3,354,129, to Phillips Petroleum CompanyGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Scruggs JG, Reed JO (1985) Polyphenylene sulfide fibers. In: Lewin M, Preston J (eds) High technology fibers, Part A. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Formhals A (1934) Process and apparatus for preparing artificial threads. US Patent 1,975,504Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reneker DH, Chun I (1996) Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning. Nanotechnology 7:216–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huang ZM, Zhang YZ, Kotaki M, Ramakrishna S (2003) A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 63:2223–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greisler HP (1991) Biohybrids-biological coatings in vascular grafts. In: New biologic and synthetic vascular prostheses. R. G. Landes Company, Austin, pp 33–46Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hakkarainen M (2002) Aliphatic polyesters: abiotic and biotic degradation and degradation products. Adv Polym Sci 157:113–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Xue L, Greisler HP (2003) Biomaterials in the development and future of vascular grafts. J Vasc Surg 37:472–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hutmacher DW (2000) Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials 21:2529–2543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim SH, Kwon JH, Chung MS, Chung E, Jung Y, Kim SH, Kim YH (2006) Fabrication of a new tubular fibrous PLCL scaffold for vascular tissue engineering. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 17(12):1359–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haslauer CM, Moghe AK, Osborne JA, Gupta BS, Loboa EG (2010) Collagen-PCL sheath-core bicomponent electrospun scaffolds increase osteogenic differentiation and calcium accretion of human adipose-derived stem cells. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 22(13):1695–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smart G, Miraftab M, Kennedy J, Groocock M (2005) Chitosan: crawling from crab shells to wound dressings. Medical textiles and biomaterials for healthcare. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang L, Khor E, Wee A, Lim L (2002) Chitosan-alginate PEC membrane as a wound dressing: assessment of incisional wound healing. J Biomed Mater Res 63(5):610–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gupta BS (1998) Medical textile structures: an overview. Med Plast Biomater 5(1):16–30Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. The reader is referred to the four encyclopedias listed below for additional information. They contain enormous quantities of information on manufactured fibers as well as comprehensive bibliographies.Google Scholar
  2. Concise encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering. Wiley, New York, 1990Google Scholar
  3. Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 1985 (17 volumes, index volume, and supplement volume)Google Scholar
  4. Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology. Interscience Publishers, New York (16 volumes)Google Scholar
  5. Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 3rd edn. Interscience Publishers, New York (21 volumes and a supplement, 3rd edn; to date, 16 volumes)Google Scholar
  6. The following books contain broad discussions of manufactured textile fibers.Google Scholar
  7. Baer E, Moet A (eds) (1991) High performance polymers. Hanser, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Billmeyer FW (1984) Textbook of polymer science. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Ciferri A, Ward IM (eds) (1979) Ultra-high modulus polymers. Applied Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Datye KV (1984) Chemical processing of synthetic fibers and blends. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Hearle JWS, Peters RH (eds) (1963) Fibre structure. The Textile Institute, Manchester, ButterworthsGoogle Scholar
  12. Lewin M, Preston J (eds) (1983) Handbook of fiber science and technology: high technology fibers, vol III. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Mark HF, Atlas SM, Cernia E (eds) Man-made fibers; Science and technology, vols I, II, and III. Wiley, New York, 1967, 1968, and 1968Google Scholar
  14. Moncrieff RW (1975) Man-made fibres, 6th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Morton WE, Hearle JWS (1993) Physical properties of textile fibres. The Textile Institute, Manchester, ButterworthsGoogle Scholar
  16. Peters RH (1967) Textile chemistry; The chemistry of fibers, vol I and Impurities in fibers; Purification of fibers, vol II. Elsevier, New York, 1963 and 1967Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of TextilesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations