Over the last decade, the semiconductor industry has experienced phenomenal growth, which has resulted in unprecedented research and technological developments in numerous domains of science and engineering. As per Moore’s Law, the emergence of the nanometer generation of very-large scale integrated (VLSI) systems has led to chip densities of over a million transistors per square millimeter, which can operate at extremely high frequencies. This rapid growth has culminated in significant performance gains and breakthroughs in a plethora of fields ranging from advanced computing platforms, to communication, security, healthcare, biomedical systems and ultra-low power devices such as wireless micro-sensors. However, this tremendous growth has incurred extremely high levels of power dissipation, resulting in an energy crisis in modern ICs. High power dissipation levels also leads to significant heat generation, increasing risk of transistor breakdown effects. This places a tremendous stress on corresponding cooling and packaging solutions, thereby adding to size, cost and weight of the entire system. Moreover, the energy crisis is further exacerbated by a much slower pace in battery technology development.
KeywordsNickel Dioxide Cadmium Settling Harness
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