Understanding Violence in Girls with Substance Misuse Problems

Part of the Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development book series (ARAD)


Violence among females is poorly understood. Violence is less common among females than males, and consequently it has been more difficult to construct samples of adequate size to examine complex interactions of risk and protective factors associated with persistent violence in females. The available evidence suggests that developmental trajectories are similar as are many of the nonbiological risk factors associated with violence among males. Knowledge is needed to inform interventions designed to reduce violence and other antisocial behaviors among young girls before these behaviors cause irreparable damage to their futures. This chapter describes a sample of adolescent girls who sought professional help for substance misuse problems, and their parents. Forty-five percent of the girls reported fighting, carrying a weapon, beating up someone, or injuring someone with a weapon in the year before seeking treatment. These girls were compared to those who reported no violent behavior. Risk factors significantly and independently associated with violence included having a first degree relative with a history of substance misuse and having experienced violent victimization by peers, while no protective factors against violence could be identified. Even though the nonviolent girls presented significant psychosocial problems, the violent girls were characterized by significantly more risk factors. The multiplicity and long-standing nature of the mental health and psychosocial problems presented by the violent girls within this clinical sample who sought treatment for substance misuse present a challenge to mental health services. The available evidence suggests that failure to address this challenge will lead to persistent violence, substance misuse, and poverty as the violent girls transition to adulthood and to conduct problems in their children.


Sexual Abuse Aggressive Behavior Anxiety Disorder Protective Factor Conduct Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research described in this chapter was conducted with support of a grant from “MOBilisering mot narkotika.” We would like to thank the adolescents and their parents who participated in the project, the research team members, and the clinical staff who helped collect data.


  1. Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8, 291–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, T., & Costello, E. J. (2002). Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1224–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Broidy, L. M., Tremblay, R. E., Brame, B., Fergusson, D., Horwood, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Budd, T., Sharp, C., & Mayhew, P. (2005). Offending in England and Wales: First results from the 2003 Crime and Justice Survey (Home Office Research Study 275). London: Home Office.
  5. Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., Mcgue, M., & Iacono, W. (2003). Parent–child conflict and the comorbidity among childhood externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 505–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 61, 851–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coie, J. D., & Jacobs, M. R. (1993). The role of social context in the prevention of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Côté, S., Vallancourt, T., LeBlanc, J. C., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Brito, S. A., & Hodgins, S. (2009). Antisocial Personality. In M. McMurran & R. Howard (Eds.), Personality, personality disorder, and violence: An evidence based approach (pp. 133–153). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Dixon, A., Howie, P., & Starling, J. (2004). Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1150–1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678–1683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. D’Onofrio, B. M., Slutske, W., Turkheimer, E., Emery, R. E., Harden, K. P., Heath, A. C., et al. (2007). Intergeneration transmission of childhood conduct problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 820–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Downs, W. R., & Harrison, L. (1998). Childhood maltreatment and the risk of substance problems in later life. Health & Social Care in the Community, 6, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farrington, D. P. (1999). A criminological research agenda for the next millennium. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43, 154–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farrington, D. P., Gallagher, B., Morley, L., St. Leger, R. J., & West, D. (1988). Are there any successful men from criminogenic backgrounds? Psychiatry, 51, 116–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. M. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 579–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Epidemiology of juvenile violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 733–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (SCID-II). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fontaine, N., Carbonneau, R., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Research review: A critical review of studies on the developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 363–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frieze, H. I. (2000). Violence in close relationships—Development of a research area: Comment on Archer. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 681–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodwin, R. D., & Hamilton, S. P. (2003). Lifetime comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder and anxiety disorders among adults in the community. Psychiatry Research, 117, 159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Granic, I., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). Toward a comprehensive model of antisocial development: A dynamic system approach. Psychological Review, 113, 101–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanson, R. F., Self-Brown, S., Fricker-Elhai, A., Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Resnick, H. (2006). Relations among parental substance use, violence exposure and mental health: The national survey of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1988–2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Herrenkohl, T. I., Maguin, E., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2000). Developmental risk factors for youth violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 176–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hill, J., Pickles, A., Burnside, E., Byatt, M., Rollinson, L., Davis, R., et al. (2001). Child sexual abuse, poor parental care and adult depression: Evidence for different mechanisms. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 104–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hodgins, S. (2007). Persistent violent offending: What do we know? British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 12–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hodgins, S., Kratzer, L., & McNeil, T. F. (2002). Obstetrical complications, parenting practices and risk of criminal behavior among persons who develop major mental disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 105, 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hodgins, S., Mednick, S. A., Brennan, P., Schulsinger, F., & Engberg, M. (1996). Mental disorder and crime: Evidence from a Danish birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 489–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodgins, S., Tengström, A., Bylin, S., Göranson, M., Hagen, L., Jansson, M., et al. (2007). Consulting for substance abuse: Mental disorders among adolescents and their parents. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 379–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoeve, M., Blokland, A., Dubas, J. S., Loeber, R., Gerris, J. R., & van der Laan, P. H. (2008). Trajectories of delinquency and paenting styles. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 223–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huesmann, L. R., Lefkowitz, M. M., Eron, L. D., & Walder, L. O. (1994). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huesmann, L. R., & Moise, J. (1998). The stability and continuity of aggression from early childhood in young adulthood. In D. J. Flannery & C. R. Huff (Eds.), Youth violence: Prevention, intervention and social policy (pp. 73–95). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hussong, A. M., Curran, P. J., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Carrig, M. M. (2004). Substance abuse hinders desistance in young adults’ antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 1029–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jaffee, S. R., Belsky, J., Harrington, H., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2006). When parents have a history of conduct disorder: How is the caregiving environment affected? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kazdin, A. E., Holland, L., & Crowley, M. (1997). Family experience of barriers to treatment and premature termination form child therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: Further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 366–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kerr, M., Stattin, H. (2003). Parenting of adolescents: Action or reaction? In A. C. Crouter, A. Booth (Eds). Children’s influence on family dynamics: The neglected side of family relationships (pp. 121–151). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Kerr, M., Statin, H., & Kiesner, J. (2007). Peers and problem behavior: Have we missed something? In R. Engels (Ed.), Friends, lovers, and groups: Who is important in adolescence and why? (pp. 125–153). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Kim-Cohen, J., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Pawlby, S. J., & Caspi, A. (2005). Maternal depression and children’s antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koops, W., & de Castro, B. O. (2004). The development of aggression and its linkages with violence and youth delinquency. The European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 241–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krueger, R. F., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bleske, A., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications. Behavior Genetics, 28, 173–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lundahl, B. W., Nimer, J., & Parsons, B. (2006). Preventing child abuse: A meta-analysis of parent training programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). Research on resilience: Response to commentaries. Child Development, 71, 573–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacDonald, J. M., Piquero, A. R., Valois, R. F., & Zullig, K. J. (2005). The relationship between life satisfaction, risk-taking behaviors, and youth violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1495–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. MacMillan, H. L., Fleming, J. E., Streiner, D. L., Lin, E., Boyle, M. H., Jamieson, E., et al. (2001). Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1878–1883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marshall, L. A., & Cooke, D. J. (1999). The childhood experiences of psychopaths: A retrospective study of familial and societal factors. Journal of Personality Disorders, 13, 211–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2004). Parental smoking and early childhood conduct problems: Testing genetic and environmental explanations of the association. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 836–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maxwell, E. (1992). The family interview for genetic studies manual. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, Intramural Research Program, Clinical Neurogenetics Branch.Google Scholar
  50. McCabe, K. M., Lansing, A. E., Garland, A., & Hough, R. (2002). Gender differences in psychopathology, functional impairment, and familial risk factors among adjudicated delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 860–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McCart, M. R., Priester, P. E., Davies, W. H., & Azen, R. (2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-­analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 527–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDermott, B. E., Quanbeck, C. D., & Frye, M. A. (2007). Comorbid substance use disorder in women with bipolar disorder associated with criminal arrest. Bipolar Disorders, 9, 536–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moffitt, T. E. (2005a). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behaviors: Evidence from behavioral-genetic research. Advances in Genetics, 55, 41–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moffitt, T. E. (2005b). The new look at behavioral genetics in developmental psychopathology: Gene-environment interplay in antisocial behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 533–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds) Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed.). Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 3, pp. 570–598). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Moffitt, T. E., Arsenault, L., Jaffee, S. R., Kim-Cohen, J., Koenen, K. C., Odgers, C. L., et al. (2008). Research review: DSM-V conduct disorder: Research needs for an evidence base. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 3–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moffit, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Rutter, M., & Silva, P. A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behavior: conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moretti, M. M., DaSilva, K., & Holland, R. (2004). Aggression and violence from an attachment perspective: Gender issues and therapeutic implications. In M. M. Moretti, C. Odgers, & M. A. Jackson (Eds.), Girls and violence: Contributing factors and intervention principles (pp. 41–56). New York: Plenum/Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  61. Moretti, M. M., Holland, R., & McKay, S. (2001). Self-other representations and relational and overt aggression in adolescent girls and boys. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 19, 109–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moretti, M. M., Obsuth, I., Odgers, C. L., & Reebye, P. (2006). Exposure to maternal vs. paternal partner violence, PTSD, and aggression in adolescent girls and boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moretti, M. M., & Odgers, C. (2006). Preface: Sex differences in the functions and precursors of adolescent aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 373–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nagin, S. D., & Tremblay, E. R. (1999). Trajectories of boy’s physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 1181–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Najaka, S. S., Gottfredson, D. C., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). A meta-analytic inquiry into the relationship between selected risk factors and problem behavior. Prevention Science, 2, 257–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nyman, H. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults, Swedish version. Stockholm: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  67. Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, M. D., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H. L., et al. (2007). Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 476–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Odgers, C. L., Milne, B. J., Caspi, A., Crump, R., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2007). Predicting prognosis for the conduct-problem boy: Can family history help? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1240–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 673–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Odgers, C. L., & Moretti, M. M. (2002). Aggressive and antisocial girls: Research update and challenges. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Odgers, C. L., Moretti, M. M., Burnette, M. L., Chauhan, P., Waite, D., & Reppucci, N. D. (2007). A latent variable modeling approach to identifying subtypes of serious and violent female juvenile offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Odgers, C. L., Moretti, M. M., & Reppucci, N. D. (2005). Examining the science and practice of violence risk assessment with female adolescents. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 7–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Odgers, C. L., Reppucci, N. D., & Moretti, M. M. (2005). Nipping psychopathy in the bud: An examination of the convergent, predictive, and theoretical utility of the PCL-YV among adolescent girls. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Orvaschel, H. (1985). Psychiatric interviews suitable for use in research with children and adolescents. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 737–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Persson, A., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2007). Staying in or moving away from structured activities: Explanations involving parents and peers. Developmental Psychology, 43, 197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Poythress, N. G., Skeem, J. L., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2006). Associations among early abuse, dissociation, and psychopathy in an offender sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 288–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Puzzanchera, C., Stahl, A. L., Finnegan, T. A., Tierney, N., & Snyder, H. N. (2003). Juvenile court statistics 1998. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  78. Sareen, J., Stein, M. B., Cox, B. J., & Hassard, S. T. (2004). Understanding comorbidity of anxiety disorders with antisocial behavior. Findings from two large community surveys. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 178–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shader, M. (2002). Risk factors for delinquency: An overview. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  80. Siegel, J. A. (2000). Aggressive behavior among women sexually abused as children. Violence and Victims, 15, 235–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Silver, E., Arsenault, L., Langley, J., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2005). Mental disorder and violent victimization in a total birth cohort. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 2015–2021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snyder, H. (2004). Juvenile Arrests 2002. Washington, DC: Juvenile Justice Bulletin.Google Scholar
  83. Sonannander, K. (1999). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Swedish version. Stockholm: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  84. Spatz-Widom, C. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stahl, A. L. (2006). Delinquency cases in juvenile courts, 2002 (Fact sheet). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  86. Statistics Canada. (2005). Juristat: Youth court statistics 2003/2004. (Catalogue number 85-002-XPE, Vol. 25, No 4). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  87. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sternberg, K. J., Baradaran, L. P., Abbott, C. R., Lamb, M. E., & Gutterman, E. (2006). Type of violence, age, and gender differences in the effects of family violence on children’s behavior problems: A mega-analysis. Developmental Review, 26, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Teplin, L., Abram, K., McClelland, G., Mericle, A., Dulcan, M., & Washburn, J. (2006, April 1–16). Psychiatric disorders of youth in detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.Google Scholar
  91. Tiet, Q. Q., Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Hove, C., Cohen, P., Jensen, P. S., et al. (1998). Adverse life events and resilience. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191–2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tiet, Q. Q., Wasserman, G. A., Loeber, R., McReynolds, L. S., & Miller, L. S. (2001). Developmental and sex differences in types of conduct problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Taylor, J., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2000). Evidence for a genetic etiology of early-onset delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 634–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Seguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., et al. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, e43–e50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Understanding development and prevention of chronic physical aggression: Towards experimental epigenetic studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 363, 2613–2622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Widom, C.S., & Maxfield, M.G. (2001). An update on the “cycle of violence” (Publication NCJ 184894). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MRC Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry CentreInstitute of Psychiatry, King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Université de MontréalMontreal, QCCanada
  4. 4.Maria-Ungdom Research CentreStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations